Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology

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Vol 18, No 4 (2022)
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366-375 482

Aim. To perform a population analysis of Non-High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol level (non-HDL-c) in Russian population and to evaluate its association with cardiovascular events.

Material and Methods. The material consisted of results obtained from 11 regions of the ESSE-RF1 Study and from 4 regions of the ESSE-RF2 Study. Study protocols were identical. The studies were performed in 2012-2014 and 2017, respectively. Endpoints were assessed in 19041 people aged 35-64 years. The median follow-up was 6.5 years in ESSE RF (1) and 3.8 years in ESSE RF(2). Analysis was performed for three lipid variables: total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and non-HDLC in two samples: the general population sample and the same sample without individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction (MI) and/or stroke history and not taking statins (the population sample of "without a history of cardiovascular diseases [CVD]". The analysis of nonlinear associations was performed using the generalized additive Cox model. The combined cardiovascular endpoint was represented by cardiovascular death and nonfatal MI and stroke. Traditional and laboratory FRs, socio-demographic parameters were analyzed. The significance level for all tested hypotheses was set to be 0.05.

Results. The prevalence of elevated non-HDL-C level (>3.7 mmol/l) was found to be 74.6%. No gender differences were found: there was 74.6% for men and 74.5% for women. Both mean values and prevalence of elevated non-HDL-C were increased with age in women, and its level was slightly decreased in men after 55 years old. Almost all analyzed RFs were significantly associated with elevated non-HDL-C in these two population samples. In both samples elevated total CH and elevated LDL-C were associated with all-cause mortality after correction for all RFs. On the contrary, the non-HDL-C was associated with CVD combined end pints. It has been shown that the risk of these end points increases uniformly with increase in levels of non HDL cholesterol, no nonlinear associations were found.

Conclusion. The results of a population-based analysis of non-HDL-C performed in the Russian population for the first time confirmed that elevated non-HDL-C levels contribute significantly to determining the risk of cardiovascular events in the medium term. It can be assumed that the new risk scales (SCORE2 and SCORE OP) proposed by the European Society of Cardiology and the European Society of Preventive Cardiology, which include non-HDL C instead of TC, will allow adequate assessment of 10-year cardiovascular risk for Russians. However, continued monitoring of endpoints in order to obtain stable associations is required.

376-384 445

Aim. We aimed to study the histological and thrombotic changes in lung vessels in patients who died with COVID-19, to access the correlation between anticoagulation therapy (ACT) and thrombotic events (TE), treatment results, clinical and laboratory patients' characteristics.

Material and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed treatment results of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and lung vessel samples of the deceased patients. Dynamic changes and highest levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen were studied in its correlation with the disease severity according to SOFA score, computer tomographic (CT) results, lung, renal and hepatic dysfunction. The association between different doses of ACT and treatment results, laboratory indicators and thrombotic events was accessed. The histological lung vessels examination was performed using Martius Scarlet Blue (MSB)staining.

Results. 313 patients were included in the study (61 patients died). The median age of hospitalized patients was 60 years (IQR 51-66 years). The frequency of the intravitallyconfirmed TE was 4,8%. The strong statistical association was revealed between D-dimer level and 3-4 points SOFA score, patients' mortality, oxygen support requirement, CT3-CT4 pneumonia, glomerular filtration rate and TE. There was no mortality in patients with D-dimer normal references, but in cases with three times elevation reached 13%, 48,5% - in cases with 3-6 times elevation and 64,6% - in cases with more than 6 times elevation. The strong statistical association was registered between fibrinogen and SOFA score, CT 3-4 pneumonia, patients' mortality. D-dimer and fibrinogen levels demonstrated weak correlation. There was no statistical correlation between prophylactic, intermediate and therapeutic ACT and D-dimer and fibrinogen levels, CT results, patients' mortality. MSBstaining was used in 36 deceased patients tissue samples. 1394 lung vessels were analyzed. Lung vessels thrombi persisted in samples of all 36 patients (100%). Vessels with the diameter 3,5-30 mm were thrombosed in 7%, with the diameter 0,034-0,84 mm - in 48%, with the diameter 0,85-3,4 mm - in 45%. The frequency of thrombi persisted 06 hours, 6-12 hours, 12-18hours, 18-24 hours and more than 24 hours was12%, 14%, 62%, 5% and 7% respectively.

Conclusion. Thrombi of different ages from fresh to organized were observed in one third of lung vessels in all deceased patients. Lung vessels thrombosis plays an important role in pathogenesis and thanatogenesis of COVID-19. The D-dimer level correlates with lung, renal dysfunction, patients' mortality and doesn't show any correlation with ACT and can be accepted as a criterion of lung vessel thrombotic progression.

385-392 323

Aim. To assess the structure and performance of left atrium (LA) before and after 3 cycles of anticancer treatment in lymphoma patients, as well as the incidences of supraventricular arrhythmia (SVA) and the levels of biomarkers of inflammation.

Material and Methods. This is a prospective observational study of patients with confirmed diagnosis of lymphoma [n=23; 57% men; median age 52 (34;64) years], who had no prior polychemotherapy. The comparison group included persons without lymphoma [n=18; 50% men; median age 43 (37; 54) years] comparable with the main group in terms of sex, age and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Patients with lymphoma underwent 24h-ECG monitoring and advanced transthoracic echocardiography at baseline and after 3 cycles (within 3 months) of anticancer treatment. Biomarkers of inflammation were measured. The results were compared with the data of the comparison group.

Results. In lymphoma patients, LA reservoir, conduit, and booster function were found to be impaired at baseline but were comparable with these in matched controls. After 3 cycles of anticancer treatment, a trend to reduction of LA booster and conduit strain was found. The proportion of those with SVA was significantly higher in lymphoma patients before chemotherapy compared to those after anti-cancer treatment or controls: 57% vs 10% and 33% respectively (p<0.05). Lymphoma patients had a higher number of premature ventricular beats at baseline than after treatment or in control [183 (14;841) vs 38 (14;94) and 9 (4;38) respectively]. There were no associations found between the parameters of LA structure and function and SVA. Moderate positive correlation between ESR and supraventricular premature complexes was found (rS=0.44; p<0.05). A positive correlation between LA contractile function and inflammatory biomarkers were revealed: LA active ejection fraction (LA EFact) and ESR (rS=0.42, p<0.05); LA volume index and β-globulin (rS=0.43, p<0.05); LA EFact and neuregulin-1β (rS=0.42, p<0.05); LA expansion index and neuregulin-1β (rS=0.55, p<0.05).

Conclusions. In lymphoma patients, LA phasic strain parameters were impaired regardless of anticancer treatment. The associations between inflammatory biomarkers with SVA and parameters of LA performance were found.

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Aim. To measure respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and different musculoskeletal disorders (MSD).

Material and methods. Patients were divided in four groups according to the MSD. Group I included 52 (13.4%) patients with sarcopenia, group II included 28 (7.2%) patients with osteopenia, group III included 25 (6.5%) patients with osteosarcopenia, group IV included 282 (72.9%) patients without MSD. All patients underwent the assessment of maximal expiratory (МЕР) and maximal inspiratory mouth pressures (MIP).

Results. The mean RMS values were lower than the normative values, and the strength of the expiratory muscles was 1.25 times lower compared to the inspiratory muscles. Both of these parameters were within the normal range in 191 (49.3%) patients, and lower values were noted in 196 (50.7%). An isolated decrease in MIP was observed in 24.8% of patients, an isolated decrease in МЕР in 6.5%, a combined decrease in MIP and МЕР in 19.4% of patients. Comparative analysis of МЕР and MIP (depending on the MSD) did not demonstrate statistically significant differences. Lower МЕР (76.9%) and MIP (75%) values were noted mainly in the group of patients with sarcopenia. A similar pattern was notes in patients with osteosarcopenia and in patients without MSD. Normative values of RMS were observed in patients with osteopenia. Correlation analysis revealed a unidirectional relationship between RMS and the parameters of muscle function (hand grip strength, muscle area and musculoskeletal index) and a multidirectional relationship between МЕР and BMI (r -0.743, p=0.013), MIP and patient age (r -0.624, p=0.021).

Conclusion. Respiratory muscle weakness was diagnosed in half of the patients with coronary heart disease. There were no statistically significant differences in RMS between patients with MSD and isolated CHD, despite lower values in the group with MSD. Correlation analysis revealed an association between RMS and muscle function.

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Aim. This study determined the level of public satisfaction with neighborhood design features in Kemerovo Oblast and their connection to cardiovascular disease risk factors.

Subjects and methods. The study population included 1,598 respondents aged between 35 and 70, with 491 living in rural areas and others living in Kemerovo (1,221 women and 477 men). The assessment of neighborhood environment was done according to residents' subjective opinions about infrastructural features (the Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale). Depending on how participants responded to the questionnaire, some of these parameters were identified as adverse.

Results. The residents of Kemerovo and rural areas of Kemerovo Oblast identified the following neighborhood design features as adverse: the lack of interesting places in neighborhood environment, the remote location of parks and restaurants, the absence of pavement, busy traffic, and a long distance between home and workplace. In the city, arterial hypertension prevalence was high among men, when grocery, fruit and clothing stores were distant, and among women, when banks, public transport stops were distant and the traffic was heavy. Lipid metabolism disorders were more common among women in urban areas, when there were no interesting places around. Obesity prevalence was high among urban female population, when the following adverse factors were present: the remote location of grocery stores, fruit stores, bank, pharmacy and public transport stops and the absence of pavement. Among rural male population, this risk factor was common when there were no pavements. The highest rate of carbohydrate metabolism disorders was found among women living in villages where the traffic is heavy and public transport stops are far away.

Conclusion. The impact of infrastructure on the health status of the living population is a new direction of scientific research. Epidemiological studies in different geographic areas and population groups show significant differences in health status, morbidity and mortality from chronic noncommunicable diseases. To reduce the risks of developing diseases of the cardiovascular system, the formation of a socially comfortable health-saving environment is of great importance.

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Aim. To compare and analyze the results of myocardial revascularization in the Russian Federation (RF) with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) before the onset (2018-2019) and during the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) pandemic (2020-2021).

Material and methods. The analysis included the number of cases of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS), the number of cases of myocardial revascularization in the above forms of ACS, the number of deaths depending on the form of ACS and the method performed revascularization. The period of time before the start of the coronavirus pandemic corresponded to the annual data received in the Russian Federation for 2018-2019. The period of the coronavirus disease pandemic corresponded to the annual data received in the country for 2020-2021. Absolute, relative, estimated values of patient hospitalization, myocardial revascularization procedures, and mortality in ACS were compared between time periods before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data for analysis were obtained from the monitoring of the Ministry of Health of Russia.

Results. In 2018 and 2019 in the RF, 531,019 and 501,238 patients were hospitalized with a diagnosis of ACS, and during the pandemic (2020-2021) - 403,931 and 397,930 patients, respectively. Reduction in the number of patients diagnosed with ACS admitted to hospitals in Russia by 22.32% in 2020-2021 years was mainly due to a significant decrease in hospitalizations of patients with a diagnosis of NSTE-ACS (by 29.03%). At the same time, admission to clinics of patients with STEMI decreased only by 6.02%. During the COVID-19 pandemic, mortality increased significantly in PPCI (by 9.6%) and in the general STEMI group (by 12.3%); significantly increased mortality both in the general group (by 48%) and during PCI in patients with NSTE-ACS (by 28.6%); there was an increase in the average annual number of PPCI (by 12.6%), which was accompanied by an increased average annual number of PPCI per 1 million of population (up to 451 per 1 million of population); a slight increase in the average time "symptom-balloon" (by 2 minutes) was recorded; there was an absolute slight decrease and a relative increase in the number of PCIs in NSTE-ACS (by 2.7% and 37.1%, respectively). In 2021, in the Russian Federation, primary PCI was performed in 50.2%, thrombolytic therapy - in 23.1%, and 26.7% of patients remained without reperfusion. Pharmacoinphasive strategy was applied in 60%, and isolated thrombolysis - in 40% of patients.

Conclusion. During the COVID-19 pandemic, revascularization in patients with ACS in Russia corresponded to the following trends recorded in the literature: increased hospital mortality in PPCI and in the general STEMI group; hospital mortality both in the general group and during PCI in patients with NSTE-ACS. The indicators of myocardial revascularization in ACS in the RF during the pandemic were fundamentally different from the data of Western countries: there was an increase in the average annual number of PPCI and the average annual number of PPCI per 1 million population; a slight increase in the average symptom-balloon time was recorded; revealed an absolute slight decrease and a relative increase in the number of PCIs in NSTE-ACS.


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The working group of the NIKEA study: Reznik I.I. (Ekaterinburg), Akulina E.N. (Ekaterinburg), Ezhov A.V. (Izhevsk), Shinkareva S.I. (Izhevsk), Grebnev S.A. (Izhevsk), Skibitsky V.V. (Krasnodar), Kudryashov E.A. (Krasnodar), Fendrikova A.V. (Krasnodar), Skibitsky A.V. (Krasnodar), Matyushin G.V. (Krasnoyarsk), Nemik D.B. (Krasnoyarsk), Pitaev R.R. (Krasnoyarsk), Altaev V.D. (Krasnoyarsk), Samokhvalov E.V. (Krasnoyarsk), Stolbikov Y.Y.. (Krasnoyarsk), Voronina V.P. (Moscow), Lerman O.V. (Moscow), Gaisenok O.V. (Moscow), Dmitrieva N.A. (Moscow), Zagrebelny A.V. (Moscow), Zakharova A.V. (Moscow), Balashov I.S. (Moscow), Leonov A.S. (Moscow), Sladkova T.A. (Moscow), Zelenova T.I. (Moscow), Shestakova G.N. (Moscow), Kolganova E.V. (Moscow), Maksimova M.A. (Moscow), Kuimov A.D. (Novosibirsk), Moskalenko I.V. (Novosibirsk), Shurkevich A.A. (Novosibirsk), Nechaeva G.I. (Omsk), Loginova E.N. (Omsk), Gudilin V.A. (Omsk), Mitroshina T.N. (Orel), Zhuravleva L.L. (Orel), Lobanova G.N. (Orel), Luneva M.M. (Orel), Libis R.A. (Orenburg), Kondratenko V.Yu. (Orenburg), Chesnikova A.I. (Rostov-on-Don), Kalacheva N.M. (Rostov-on-Don), Kolomatskaya O.O. (Rostov-on-Don), Dubishcheva N.F. (Rostov-on-Don), Romadina G.V. (Rostov-on-Don), Chugunova I.B. (Rostov-on-Don), Skarzhinskaya N.S. (Rostov-on-Don), Dobrynina N.V. (Ryazan), Yakushin S.S. (Ryazan), Bulanov A.V. (Ryazan), Trofimova Ya.M. (Ryazan), Nikolaeva A.S. (Ryazan), Sokolova L.A. (St. Petersburg), Savinova E.B. (St. Petersburg), Ievskaya E.V. (St. Petersburg), Vasilyeva L.B. (St. Petersburg), Gomova T.A. (Tula), Zubareva L.A. (Tula), Berberfish L.D. (Tula), Gorina G.I. (Tula), Nadezhkina K.N. (Tula), Yunusova K.N. (Tula), Nikitina V.F. (Tula), Dabizha V.G. (Tula), Renko I.E. (Tula), Soin I.A. (Tula)

Aim. To analyze the adverse events (AEs) of nicorandil therapy based on the results of an observational study of NIKEA, to assess the relationship between the occurrence of AEs treatment and adherence to it in patients with stable angina pectoris.

Material and methods. The study included 590 people who had nicorandil added to the basic therapy of coronary artery disease (CAD). The followup period averaged 21 months. There were two visits of 1 and 3 months of follow-up (V1 and V3), and after 21 months, by telephone contact (PhC21), it was possible to obtain information about 524 patients (89% response), 509 of whom were alive. Information about the treatment adherence and AEs of nicorandil was collected during V1, V3 and at PhC21.

Results. Out of 590 people, 402 (68.1%) patients started treatment with nicorandil. During 21 months of follow-up, 35 AEs were registered in 34 patients. There were no serious AEs associated with taking medications in the study. The most frequent AEs of treatment with nicorandil were hypotension and headache, which led to non-adherence to therapy in 94% and 42% of cases, respectively. The majority of AEs (24 out of 35) occurred during the first three months of nicorandil treatment. Both any AEs of drug therapy and AEs of nicorandil therapy, on average, increase the chance of non-adherence to the recommended treatment by 3 times (p=0.004).

Conclusion. The results of the NIKEA study confirmed the good safety of nicorandil in patients with stable angina pectoris, the absence of serious adverse events associated with taking this antianginal drug. The most frequent nicorandil AEs were hypotension and headache. Any AEs of therapy increase the chance of patients' non-adherence by 3 times.

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Aim. To study the safety and tolerability of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) after implantation.

Material and methods. The results of 33 patients with implanted S-ICD 6 months follow-up. The criteria for inclusion in the observational study were: age over 18 years, indications for primary or secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. The exclusion criteria were indications for implantation of transvenous ICD (patients with sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, the need for anti-bradycardia or resynchronization therapy), as well as patients with a QRS complex of more than 130 msec. All patients underwent a standard preoperative examination (routine blood tests, chest X-ray, transthoracic echocardiography), quality-of-life questionnaires and transesophageal echocardiography. At follow-up, patients were examined after 6 months after implantation, the device was interrogated and a quality-of-life questionnaire was completed. All episodes of shock therapy and complications were documented.

Results. Male patients predominated (84%), with a mean age of 57 [43;62] years. Left ventricular ejection fraction was 30% [26;34]. The mean QRS duration was 100 [94;108] msec. According to the of 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring, episodes of unstable VT were recorded in 42.4% of patients. The most common indications for S-ICD implantation were dilated (33%) and ischemic cardiomyopathy (42%). Primary prevention was indicated in 97% of patients. At the end of the implantation of the S-ICD, the patients underwent a defibrillation test and device configuration. In 63.6% of cases, during automatic tuning, the device selected the primary perception vector. In 27.2% of patients, optimal recognition of the subcutaneous signal was observed in the secondary vector, and in 9.2% of patients, the alternative vector was favorable. All patients underwent two-zone programming. The conditional shock zone was programmed at an average rate of 192 beats/min (range 180-210 beats/min) and the shock zone was programmed at an average rate of 222 beats/min (range 220-240 beats/min). Perioperative complications occurred in two patients. During the follow-up period, no shocks were recorded in 27 patients. Adequate shocks for 6 months were recorded in two patients. During 6 months of observation, one lethal outcome was noted due to complications of viral pneumonia. During the observation period, there were no rehospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases.

Conclusion. The use of S-ICD, even in patients with structural myocardial disease who do not require antibradycardia pacing, is effective in preventing SCD. The number of inadequate discharges and the number of complications in clinical practice is comparable to the data of multicenter studies. S-ICD implantation was not accompanied by a decrease in quality of life. Careful selection of candidates, along with state-of-the-art device programming, is an important parameter for the selection and success of S-ICD application.

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Aim. The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of the rs776746 allelic variant of the CYP3A5 gene and its effect on heart rate (HR) when using bisoprolol in patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Materials and methods. The study included patients with ACS who were prescribed bisoprolol for clinical indications. All patients underwent molecular genetic testing. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy with bisoprolol, all patients underwent Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoting on days 10, the following parameters were assessed: minimum, average, maximum heart rate and heart rate during an exercise test. The stress test was performed as a ladder test.

Results. The study involved 97 patients (63,5±10,5 years), including 60 men and 37 women. The frequency of occurrence of the desired alleles of the CYP3A5 gene was: CYP3A5*3 - 93%, and CYP3A5*1 - 7%, which corresponds to its prevalence in the European population. 84 carriers of the CYP3A5*3*3 genotype (87%), 12 heterozygous carriers of the *1 allele (12%) and one patient with the *1*1 genotype (1%) were identified. In order to search for differences in the effects of bisoprolol depending on the genetically predetermined activity of CYP3A5, we divided the general group of patients into two subgroups: subgroup 1 (CYP3A5*3*3), represented by carriers of the genotype associated with the synthesis of the inactive form of CYP3A5, and subgroup 2 (CYP3A5*1*3 and CYP3A5*1*1), represented by carriers of at least one allele encoding the synthesis of a fully functional protein CYP3A5, coupled with an increased metabolic rate. Patients did not differ in clinical and demographic characteristics. By the time of daily ECG monitoring, both groups reached comparable heart rate values. In carriers of at least one CYP3A5*1 allele (n = 13), associated with an increased metabolic rate, the daily dose of bisoprolol on the 10th day of hospitalization was significantly higher (p <0.05). The only carrier of the homozygous CYP3A5 *1*1 variant receives bisoprolol at a daily dose of 10 mg. Taking into account the close to significant differences in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients in the groups with the studied genetic variants, and the known eliminating role of the kidneys for bisoprolol, a linear regression model was built with the inclusion of factors that could affect the dose of bisoprolol: GFR, functional class of chronic heart failure, gender, age, number of simultaneously assigned CYP3A5 substrates. Of the parameters listed, only the CYP3A5 genotype significantly predicted the dose of bisoprolol (F=8.5; p<0.005; R2=0.096).

Conclusion. In this study, it was demonstrated for the first time that patients with different genetic variants of CYP3A5, in particular with respect to the rs776746 polymorphism, may differ in individual requirements for the dose of bisoprolol.

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Aim. To study the outcomes frequency and structure in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) depending on the cardioembolic events preventing method: left atrial appendage (LAA) isolation, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) or warfarin.

Material and methods. A prospective observational study included patients with AF and high risk of cardioembolic complications and without contraindications to anticoagulants. Patients who refused long-term oral anticoagulants taking underwent LAA isolation, the rest of the patients received DOACs or warfarin. The observation period was 3 years. Mortality, cardioembolic complications and major bleeding (according to GARFIELD criteria) cumulative incidence was assessed.

Results. We included 245 patients: 46 patients were treated with LAA isolation, 100 with warfarin, and 99 with DOACs. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated a statistically significant advantage of LAA occluder in terms of combined endpoint achieving frequency compared to warfarin (hazard ratio [HR] 3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-9.54; p=0.049), and to DOACs (HR 3.44, 95% CI 1.15-10.29; p=0.027). A similar result was obtained for all-cause mortality (HR 5.24; 95% CI 1.12-24.55; p=0.036 and HR 5.58; 95% CI 1.22-25.49; p=0.027, respectively). There were no significant differences in bleeding rates between the groups.

Conclusion. This observational study demonstrates the superiority of LAA isolation as a first-line therapy over DOACs and warfarin in patients with AF and high risk of cardioembolic complications. Randomized trials are required to confirm these observations.


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Aim. To study the frequency of detection of hyperuricemia (HU) in patients with high and very high cardiovascular risk and the frequency of prescribing drugs that lower serum uric acid (sUA) levels in real clinical practice.

Material and methods: The general information of the study was based on the data of 2457 patients who were consistently included in the «PROFILE» registry until November 30, 2020: 1250 men (50.9%) and 1207 (49.1%) women. All patients with HU were selected (UA level ≥360 pmol/l in women, ≥420 pmol/l in men). At the stage of inclusion of the patient, data on MC indicators were available in 1777 (72.3%), upon re-examination - only 262 (33.2%) out of 790 patients who returned to the appointment.

Results: The most common study of the level of sUA was performed in patients with gout (65.2%), with arterial hypertension (AH) and dyslipemia in 29.1% of cases, with diabetes mellitus (DM) - 30.1%, with impaired tolerance to glucose (IGT) - 40.2%, with other diseases, the proportion of patients with a known UA was even less. A positive relationship was found between the presence of AH and IGT with the frequency of UA control (p<0.001). In patients with AH, an increase in the level of sUA was detected significantly more often than in patients without AH (p<0.001), and less frequently in patients with DM and IGT (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). The frequency of allopurinol prescribing was low: 49 (2%) patients received therapy, while of the 284 patients with HU, only 20 (7%) were prescribed allopurinol.

Conclusion: in real clinical practice, only 29.1% of patients with AH and 20-25% of patients with other CVDs were monitored for sUA levels, every third patient had data on sUA levels at a repeat visit. In the presence of gout, the proportion of patients with current UA was higher (65%). For those with AH and IGT, positive correlations were found between the presence of the disease and control of sUA levels. A low frequency of prescribing drugs for the correction of HU was revealed.


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Aim. To analyze the currently available published randomized controlled clinical trials to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine on the incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI).

Material and methods. The meta-analysis was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines based on a search of existing literature in the PubMed/MEDLINE database for the period from 2015 to 16 February 2022. Keywords included MeSH terms «acute kidney injury» or «contrast-induced nephropathy» or «AKI» or «CIN» and «contrast media» and «N-acetylcysteine». The RoB 2 tool was used to assess study bias.

Results: When searching based on the initially selected statistics, 98 publications were identified, some of them were excluded from the analysis due to non-compliance with the inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis, 7 studies of unused sources of detection were ultimately selected, the total number of patients in the discovery was 10394.The results of the meta-analysis revealed that in patients treated with N-acetylcysteine CI-AKI developed with the same frequency as in patients who did not observe such therapy as a prophylaxis for this disease (odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.911.23, p=0.46).

Conclusion. The use of N-acytelcysteine does not offer any advantage in reducing the incidence of CI-AKI compared with the administration of saline solutions (sodium bicarbonate or sodium chloride 0.9%) or placebo.

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The mechanisms of takotsubo syndrome, better known as stress-induced cardiomyopathy, are not fully understood. The article presents a clinical case of the development of acute left ventricular failure in a 39-year-old pregnancy against the background of severe preeclampsia. Echocardiography revealed a decrease in global myocardial contractility, hypo-akinesia of the apex and all median parts of the left ventricle, hyperkinesis of the basal parts. After 2 weeks, myocardial contractility was normal, no contractility impairment was found. Two months after the acute episode of the disease, magnetic resonance imaging of the heart was performed, according to which no pathological changes were detected. Based on the clinical picture, electrocardiogram changes, laboratory data and typical transient echocardiographic changes, it was suggested that the patient had takotsubo syndrome.


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Refractory arterial hypertension is characterized by a lack of control of target blood pressure, despite the prolonged use >5 antihypertensive drugs with different mechanisms of action, including longacting diuretic chlorthalidone and the mineralcorticoid receptor antagonists (spironolactone or eplerenone). The review presents the results of clinical studies devoted the elucidating peculiarities of the neurohormonal status and water-salt balance in such patients and developing new approaches to antihypertensive drug therapy based on them. According to these studies, individuals with refractory hypertension differ from patients with resistant hypertension with the higher of sympathetic nervous system activity and the absence of an increased of intrathoracic fluid volume, which indirectly indicates a significant decrease in the intravascular fluid volume. In this regard, the review focuses on the data obtained in assessing the clinical efficacy of sympatholytics clonidine and reserpine in patients with resistant and refractory hypertension, as well as renal sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors, which suppress the sympathetic nervous system activity and can be used to overcome refractory hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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Recently, hyperuricemia and its association with cardiovascular disease have been receiving more and more attention. The article talks about the role of uric acid in the body, the reasons for its increase and the impact of elevated uric acid levels on the cardiovascular system. The mechanisms of influence of hyperuricemia on the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases are presented. Medicinal and non-drug ways to reduce the level of uric acid in the blood are considered. From non-drug methods, attention is focused on the hypopurine diet, adequate drinking regimen and normalization of body weight. Separately, the effect on the level of uric acid of various drugs used in clinical practice is considered. In the light of current clinical guidelines, the issue of the need to prescribe drug therapy for asymptomatic hyperuricemia is discussed.


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Aim. To evaluate the effect of taking a single pill combination of amlodipine, lisinopril and rosuvastatin on blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in hypertensive patients with or without severe hypercholesterolemia.

Material and methods. Articles published in Russian were selected for analysis. Six articles that met the criteria for inclusion in a systematic review were found by searching the eLibrary database for the keyword "equamer". The results of 5 observational clinical studies were presented in these articles. The effectiveness of the fixed combination of amlodipine, lisinopril and rosuvastatin was assessed mainly by changes in the level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the concentration of LDL cholesterol. In addition, the effects of fixed-dose amlodipine, lisinopril, and rosuvastatin on central aortic pressure and its increment index, as well as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, were studied in part of the studies. The effect of the fixed combination of amlodipine, lisinopril and rosuvastatin on blood pressure and LDL-C concentration, as well as on these additional indicators, in patients who had a coronavirus infection with severe lung damage was studied in one study.

Results. Evidence from a systematic review demonstrates the efficacy of single pill combination amlodipine, lisinopril and rosuvastatin in reducing blood pressure and LDL-C in a wide range of patients with different baseline risk of developing cardiovascular complications and different baseline levels of blood pressure and LDL-C.

Conclusion. The data obtained confirm the feasibility of more frequent prescription of the single pill combination of amlodipine, lisinopril and rosuvastatin in clinical practice for the treatment of hypertensive patients with high or moderate risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, including patients with concomitant hypercholesterolemia.


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