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Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology

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Vol 17, No 6 (2021)
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ORIGINAL STUDIES 

808-815 426
Abstract

Aim. To characterize patients receiving PCSK9 inhibitors, and assess the efficiency of their treatment in a specialized lipid center.

Material and methods. A retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who visited the Lipid clinic of the National Medical Research Center for Therapy and Preventive Medicine (Moscow, Russia), receiving PCSK9 inhibitor and having lipid profile in dynamics, was carried out (n=77). Cardiovascular risk (CVR) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) target levels were evaluated in accordance with the Russian guidelines for the diagnostics and correction of dyslipidemias 2020.

Results. Of 77 patients taking PCSK9 inhibitors (44.2% males, the median of age 56 [47; 66] years), the majority (64.0%) had a probable or definite familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The proportion of other lipid metabolism disorders, pure hypercholesterolemia and combined hyperlipidemia was 21% and 15%. More than half of the patients (68.8%) had a very high CVR, mainly due to the presence of coronary heart disease (84.9%). The proportion of patients receiving PCSK9 inhibitors as monotherapy was 7.8%, in combination with high-intensity statin therapy – 33.8%, as part of triple lipid-lowering therapy (high-intensity statin, ezetimibe, PCSK9 inhibitors) – 50.6%. Addition of PCSK9 inhibitors to combined lipid-lowering therapy enabled to reduce the LDL-C level to 1.02 [0.62; 1.39] mmol/l with its total decrease from the baseline by 87.3%. While taking PCSK9 inhibitors, LDL-C <1.8 mmol/l and <1.4 mmol/l achieved at 78.3% and 57.7% FH patients with high and very high CVR, respectively. Among patients with other hyperlipidemias, 74.1% of patients with very high CVR was achieved the target LDL-C level <1.4 mmol/l.

Conclusion: In a specialized lipid center, PCSK9 inhibitors are prescribed to patients with high or very high CVR, most of whom are FH patients. The effectiveness of the use of PCSK9 inhibitors in real-world practice is comparable to the results of clinical trials.

816-824 346
Abstract

Aim. To assess in clinical practice the structure of multimorbidity, cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and outcomes in patients with a combination of atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic heart failure (CHF) based on prospective registries of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Materials and Methods. The data of 3795 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) were analyzed within the registries RECVASA (Ryazan), RECVASA FP (Moscow, Kursk, Tula, Yaroslavl), REGION-PO and REGION-LD (Ryazan), REGION-Moscow, REGATA (Ryazan). The comparison groups consisted of 3016 (79.5%) patients with AF in combination with CHF and 779 (29.5%) patients with AF without CHF. The duration of prospective observation is from 2 to 6 years.

Results. Patients with a combination of AF and CHF (n=3016, age was 72.0±10.3 years; 41.8% of men) compared with patients with AF without CHF (n=779, age was 70.3±12.0 years; 43.5% of men) had a higher risk of thromboembolic complications (CHA2DS2-VASc – 4.68±1.59 and 3.10±1.50; p<0.001) and hemorrhagic complications (HAS-BLED – 1.59±0.77 and 1.33±0.76; p<0.05). Patients with a combination of AF and CHF significantly more often (p<0.001) than in the absence of CHF were diagnosed with arterial hypertension (93.9% and 83.8%), coronary heart disease (87.9% and 53,5%), myocardial infarction (28.4% and 14.0%), diabetes mellitus (22.4% and 7.7%), chronic kidney disease (24.8% and 16.2%), as well as respiratory diseases (20.1% and 15.3%; p=0.002). Patients with AF in the presence of CHF, compared with patients without CHF, were more often diagnosed with a permanent form of arrhythmia (49.3% and 32.9%; p<0.001) and less often paroxysmal (22.5% and 46.2%; p<0.001) form  of  arrhythmia.  Ejection  fraction  ≤40%  (9.3%  and  1.2%;  p<0.001),  heart  rate  ≥90/min  (23.7% and 19.3%; p=0.008) and blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg (59.9% and 52.2%; p<0.001) were recorded with AF in the presence of CHF more often than in the absence of CHF. The frequency of proper cardiovascular pharmacotherapy was higher, albeit insufficient, in the presence of CHF (64.9%) than in the absence of it (56.1%), but anticoagulants were prescribed less frequently when AF and CHF were combined (38.8% and  49, 0%; p<0.001). The frequency of unreasonable prescription of antiplatelet agents instead of anticoagulants was 52.5% and 33.3% (p<0.001) in the combination of AF, CHF and coronary heart disease, as well as in the combination of AF with coronary heart disease but without CHF. Patients with AF and CHF during the observation period compared with those without CHF had higher mortality from all causes (37.6% and 30.3%; p=0.001), the frequency of non-fatal cerebral stroke (8.2% and 5.4%; p=0.032) and myocardial infarction (4.7% and 2.5%; p=0.036), hospitalizations for CVD (22.8% and 15.5%; p<0.001).

Conclusion. Patients with a combination of AF and CHF, compared with the group of patients with AF without CHF, were older, had a higher risk of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications, they were more often diagnosed with other concomitant cardiovascular and chronic noncardiac diseases, decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, tachysystole, failure to achieve the target blood pressure level in the presence of arterial hypertension. The frequency of prescribing proper cardiovascular pharmacotherapy was higher, albeit insufficient, in the presence of CHF, while the frequency of prescribing anticoagulants was less. The  incidence of mortality from all causes, the development of non-fatal myocardial infarction   and cerebral stroke, as well as the incidence of hospitalizations for CVDs were higher in AF associated with CHF.

825-830 343
Abstract

Aim. To evaluate the effect of sinus tachycardia and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on the prognosis of patients with a verified diagnosis of a new coronavirus infection SARS-CoV-2.

Material and methods. The study included 1,637 patients with a verified diagnosis of a new coronavirus infection SARS-CoV-2. The average age of the patients was 58.8±16.1 years. More than half of the patients admitted to the hospital had a history of cardiovascular diseases: hypertension was diagnosed in 915 (56%) patients, coronary artery disease – in 563 (34%), chronic heart failure – in 410 (25%). 294 (17.9%) patients suffered from diabetes mellitus. The unfavorable course of new coronavirus infection was assessed by the fact of being in the intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation and death.

Results. An unfavorable course of coronavirus infection was observed in 160 (9.8%) patients. Statistical analysis revealed that 341 (20.8%) patients with COVID-19 were diagnosed with sinus tachycardia, which required the appointment of pulse-reducing therapy. The occurrence of sinus tachycardia in patients with COVID-19 significantly increased the risk of death (odds ratio [OR] 1.248, confidence interval [CI] 1.038-1.499, p=0.018), increased the likelihood of mechanical ventilation use (OR 1.451, CI 1.168-1.803, p<0.001) and stay in the ICU (OR 1.440, CI 1.166-1.778, p<0.001).

In 97 (5.9%) patients during hospital stay during echocardiography, a decrease in LVEF of less than 50% was diagnosed. A decrease in myocardial contractile function in patients with COVID-19 with high reliability increased the risk of death (OR 1.744, CI 1.348-2.256, p<0.001), increased the likelihood of using the mechanical ventilation (OR 1.372, CI 1.047-1.797, p=0.022) and stay in the ICU (OR 1.360, CI 1.077-1.716, p=0.010).

Conclusion. The appearance of sinus tachycardia and reduced LVEF are in dependent predictors of the unfavorable course of COVID-19 in relation to factors such as death, the use of mechanical ventilation and the stay of patients in the ICU. Early pharmacological correction of cardiovascular lesions should be one of the goals of the management theese patients.

831-836 337
Abstract

Aim. To study the frequency of prescribing antithrombotic agents in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) in real clinical practice, to evaluate changes of prescriptions from 2012 till 2020.

Material and methods. The medical records of inpatients (Form 003/y) with the diagnosis AF, hospitalized in the cardiological department were analyzed. According to the inclusion criteria, the patients were over 18 years of age, established diagnosis of non-valvular AF. There were two exclusion criteria: congenital and acquired valvular heart disease and prosthetic heart valves. In retrospective analysis we have included 263 case histories in 2012, 502 ones in 2016 and 524 in 2020. CHA2DS2-VASc score was used for individual stroke risk assessment in AF. The rational use of the antithrombotic therapy was evaluated according with current clinical practice guidelines at analyzing moment.

Results. During period of observation the frequency of antiplatelet therapy significantly decreased from 25,5% to 5,5% (р<0.001), decreased the frequency of administration of warfarin from 71,9% to 18,3% (р<0.001). The frequency of use of direct oral anticoagulants increased in 2020 compared to 2016 (р<0.001). For patients with a high risk of stroke anticoagulant therapy was administered in 71.8% of cases in 2012, 88.5% in 2016 and 92.5% in 2020. Before discharge from hospital majority of patients (72%) achieved a desired minimum international normalized ratio (INR) from 2.0 to 3.0 in 2012. In 2016 and 2020 an only 33% and 40.6% of patients achieved INR (2.0-3.0).

Conclusion. Doctors have become more committed to following clinical guidelines during the period of the investigation. In 2020 antithrombotic therapy for atrial fibrillation was suitable according to current clinical guidelines.

837-844 286
Abstract

Aim. To assess the contribution of traditional and socio-economic factors to the development and dynamics of dyslipidemia based on the results of an epidemiological study in a large region of Siberia.

Material and methods. Clinical and epidemiological prospective study of the population 35-70 years old was carried out. At the basic stage, 1600 participants were examined, including 1124 women and 476 men, the prospective stage included 807 respondents (the response was 84.1%). A survey was carried out to find out the state of health (presence of diseases, taking medications), socio-economic status (level of education and income, marital status) and the presence of behavioral risk factors (tobacco and alcohol use).

Results. The proportion of people with hypercholesterolemia increased 1.2 times, low LDL – 1.1 times, and hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL – 1.7 times. In persons with hypertriglyceridemia, the frequency of detected obesity and hypertension decreased by 7.9% and 4.6%, respectively (p = 0.046). Obesity was associated with an increased risk of developing hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.49, CI: 1.0-2.2), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 2.14, CI: 1.5-3.0), high LDL cholesterol (OR = 2.16, CI: 1.3-3.6) and low HDL cholesterol (OR = 2.07, CI: 1.5-2.9). The presence of hypertension - with an increased risk of developing hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 2.19, CI: 1.5-3.1) and low HDL (OR = 2.49, CI: 1.8-3.5). Among people with low HDL levels, the number of smokers and drinkers decreased (by 7.0% and 5.7%, respectively), as well as those with obesity by 8.6%. The prevalence of dyslipidemia increased in all socioeconomic groups.

Conclusion. Over 3 years of follow-up, there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of persons with dyslipidemia in all socio-economic groups. There was a significant decrease in such risk factors as obesity, hypertension, smoking, alcohol consumption and an increase in the number of respondents taking lipid-lowering therapy.

845-852 380
Abstract

Aim: To update the definitions of selected questions of the "QAA-25" (quantitative adherence assessment) scale and evaluate it according to the criteria of validity and measure of agreement.

Materials and Methods. In a descriptive cross-sectional study including 200 patients with coronary heart disease, adherence was determined using traditional and alternative versions of selected questions of the QAA-25 scale, followed by assessment of construct validity, factor validity, and measure of agreement.

Results. Alternative question versions did not significantly affect test results, with 81% of respondents in the outpatient sample and 69% in the inpatient sample rating them as "more acceptable." The QAA-25 scale has good construct and internal validity (α – 0.818, αst – 0.832), with moderate agreement (κ – 0.562) and demonstrates high reliability of internal validity – when scale items are consistently excluded, α values remain in the 0.801-0.839 range.

Conclusion. The QAA-25 scale with modified question definitions should be used instead of the previous version of the scale. Good construct validity and factor validity, sufficient measure of agreement and specificity, high sensitivity and reliability of the QAA-25 scale allow to recommend it as a tool for assessing adherence to drug therapy, medical support, lifestyle modification and integral adherence to treatment in scientific and clinical practice.

NOTES FROM PRACTICE 

853-859 375
Abstract

Aim. To determine the median levels of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1; endothelium-derived growth factor and the natural agonist of the ERBB3 and ERBB4 receptors) NRG-1 in healthy volunteers and to study the associations of NRG-1 levels with gender and age.

Material and Methods. Ninety seven healthy participants were enrolled (median age of 44 [32-54], men 45 men [46.4%]). The following age groups were identified: 20-29 y.о. (n=20, men – 50.0%),  30-39  y.о.  (n=21,  men  –  52.4%),  40-49  y.о.  (n=22,  men  –  45.5%),  50-59  y.о. (n=22, men – 36.4%); 60-69 y.о. (n=12, men – 50.0%). Peripheral blood samples were collected at the time of enrolment, standard laboratory tests were performed, and NRG-1 levels were determined in the plasma samples by ELISA.

Results. In the cohort of 97 healthy participants the median value of NRG-1 was 0.3 [0.121-2.24] ng/ml. NRG-1 levels did not differ significantly between men and women (p=0.145), indicating that NRG-1 levels are not influenced by gender. The levels of NRG-1 were similar in the different age groups: age 20-29 years=0.26 [0.17-0.37] ng/ml; age 30-39=0.24 [0.1-0.39] ng/ml; age 40-49=0.31 [0.19-1.15] ng/ml; age 50-59=0.37  [0.19-1.0] ng/ml; age 60-69=0.4 [0.13-0.81] ng/ml. Correlation analysis between NRG-1 levels and route blood measurements (haemoglobin, lipids, glucose, creatinine, and uretic acid) did not show significant associations.

Conclusions. In this study, the median value of NRG-1 plasma levels were determined. The results of the study show that age and gender had no influence on NRG-1 values.

860-866 351
Abstract

Aim. To study the psychosomatic relationships and quality of life (QOL) of patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) depending on the presence or absence of panic attacks (PA) in comparison with patients with heartbeat against the background of somatoform autonomic dysfunction.

Material and methods. The study included patients with SVT and heart attacks due to sinus tachycardia in the context of somatoform autonomic disorder (SAD). All patients were interviewed to identify anxiety and depressive disorders (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS] and Hamilton's Depression Scale), QOL assessment (SF-36 questionnaire), and they were also consulted by a psychiatrist who established the presence or absence of PA. According to a visual analogue scale, in points from 0 to 6, we assessed the general state of our patients' health (0 points corresponded to complete health, and 6 points corresponded to a serious illness) and the effect of heartbeat on well-being (0 points - no arrhythmia, 6 points - arrhythmia «nterferes with life»).

Results. The study included 96 patients: 60 with SVT (21 men, 39 women, average age was 51 [33; 61] years) and 36 with heart attacks caused by sinus tachycardia in the framework of somatoform autonomic disorder (10 men, 26 women, average age was 33 [27; 41] years). Panic disorder was diagnosed in the SVT group in 17 patients, accounting for 28.3%. Only 7 patients (41%) could clearly differentiate between SVT and PA attacks. The low sensitivity of the HADS questionnaire in patients with SVT determined the need to consult a psychiatrist for the diagnosis of panic disorders.

Conclusion. PA is typical for 28.3% of patients with SVT. The combination of SVT with PA reduces the QOL of patients due to its mental components, including due to the more frequent occurrence of depressive symptoms. Patients with SAD subjectively perceive the heartbeat as a more significant factor affecting health, compared with patients with SVT. Difficulties in the differential diagnosis of PA and SVT paroxysms in real clinical practice often lead to the appointment of the same therapy without taking into account the differences in the genesis of heartbeats.

867-872 307
Abstract

Aim: To assess the content of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in patients with abdominal obesity and its relationship with metabolic disorders.

Material and methods. Patients with abdominal obesity (n=107) were included in the study. All participants had an assessment of anthropometric parameters (height, weight), calculation of body mass index (BMI), proportion of total adipose tissue and VAT (bioimpedance analyzer), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, epicardial thickness adipose tissue (two-dimensional echocardiography).

Results. The median share of VAT (bioimpedance method) was 13%. Patients with abdominal obesity are divided by VAT into 2 groups: ≥14% or ≤13%. Patients with VAT≥14% had significantly higher levels of triglycerides (1.76 [1.27; 2.38] mmol / L) and glucose (6.33 [5.78; 7.87] mmol / L), and below HDL-c levels (0.95 [0.85; 1.21] mmol / L) compared with patients with VAT≤13% (1.32 [1.02; 1.50], 5.59 [5, 11; 6.16] and 1.31 [1.07; 1.58] mmol / L, respectively; p<0.001 for all three comparisons). A significant correlation was found between VAT and triglyceride, glucose and HDL-c levels (r=0.40; r=0.40; r=-0.31, respectively; p<0.001).

Conclusion. Persons with abdominal obesity are heterogeneous in the proportion of VAT. The proportion of VAT above the median is associated with metabolic disorders that are significant for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. An increase in BMI in obese individuals is not associated with an increase in VAT and an increase in the severity of metabolic disorders.

PAGES OF RUSSIAN NATIONAL SOCIETY OF EVIDENCE-BASED PHARMACOTHERAPY 

873-879 317
Abstract

Aim. Based on the data from the register of patients with COVID-19 and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), analyze the duration of the prehospital period, cardiovascular comorbidity and the quality of prehospital pharmacotherapy of concomitant cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Material and methods. Patients were included to the study which admitted to the FSBI "NMHC named after N.I. Pirogov" of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and/or CAP. The data for prehospital therapy, information from medical histories and a patients’survey in the hospital or by telephone contact 1-2 weeks after discharge were study. The duration of the prehospital stage was determined from the date of the appearance of clinical symptoms of coronavirus infection to the date of hospitalization.

Results. The average age of the patients (n=1130; 579 [51.2%] men and 551 [48.8%] women) was 57.5±12.8 years. The prehospital stage was 7 (5,0; 10,0) days and did not differ significantly in patients with the presence and absence of CVD, but was significantly less in the deceased than in the surviving patients, as well as in those who required artificial lung ventilation (ALV). 583 (51.6%) patients had at least one CVD. Cardiovascular comorbidity was registered in 222 (42.7%) patients with hypertension, 210 (95.5%) patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), 104 (91.2%) patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The inclusion of non-cardiac chronic diseases in the analysis led to an increase in the total proportion of patients with concomitant diseases to 65.8%. Approximately a quarter of hypertensive patients did not receive antihypertensive therapy, a low proportion of patients receiving antiplatelet agents and statins for CHD was revealed – 53% and 31.8%, respectively, anticoagulants for AF – 50.9%.

Conclusion. The period from the onset of symptoms to hospitalization was significantly shorter in the deceased than in the surviving patients, as well as in those who required ALV. The proportion of people with a history of at least one CVD was about half of the entire cohort of patients. In patients with CVD before COVID-19 disease, a low frequencies of prescribing antihypertensive drugs, statins, antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants (in patients with AF) were recorded at the prehospital stage.

POINT OF VIEW 

880-888 274
Abstract

The association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular risk is currently one of the actively studied areas. The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty  liver disease continues to grow worldwide. In the structure of mortality rate of patients with non-alcoholic fatty  liver disease,  the first place is occupied by cardiovascular events: stroke and myocardial infarction. Studies have shown that the presence of severe liver fibrosis (F3-4) in NAFLD not only increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but also increases the risk  of  overall  mortality  by  69%  due  to mortality from cardiovascular causes. The degree of increased risk is associated with the degree of activity of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Despite the large number of works on this topic, we do not have a clear opinion on the impact on cardiovascular risk, interaction and the contribution of various factors, as well as algorithms for managing patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This article describes the pathogenetic factors of formation of cardiovascular risks in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, proposed the idea of stratification of cardiovascular risks in these patients, taking into account changes in the structure of the liver (fibrosis) and function (clinical and biochemical activity) and also it describes the main directions of drug therapy, taking into account the common pathogenetic mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular diseases. The role of obesity, local fat depots, adipokines, and endothelial dysfunction as the leading pathogenetic factors of increased cardiovascular risk in patients with NAFLD is discussed. Among pathogenetically justified drugs in conditions of poly and comorbidity, hypolipidemic (statins, fibrates), angiotensin II receptor antagonists, beta-blockers, etc. can be considered. According to numerous studies, it becomes obvious that the assessment of cardiovascular risks in patients with NAFLD will probably allow prescribing cardiological drugs, selecting individualized therapy regimens, taking into account the form of NAFLD, and on the other hand, building curation taking into account the identified cardiovascular risks.

889-899 268
Abstract

The association of hyperuricemia (HU) with cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and kidney disease has been demonstrated in numerous studies. НU is the main pathogenetic factor in the development of gout and is associated with an increase in overall and cardiovascular mortality. НU is included in the list of factors determining cardiovascular risk. According to epidemiological studies, there is a high prevalence of HU in the world and its increase in recent decades. A number of factors have been identified that contribute to the increased risk of НU. Non-modifiable factors include gender, age, genetic factors, and modifiable factors include diet and lifestyle. Nutritional unbalances, increased life expectancy, increased prevalence of obesity, and increased use of drugs (especially diuretics) are seen as contributing factors to the rise in НU. The review was carried out to summarize the available information on the effect of dietary habits, individual foods and nutrients on serum uric acid (SUA) levels and the risk of developing HU. The review presents the results of scientific studies demonstrating the relationship of НU with the consumption of foods rich in purines (offal, red meat, fish, seafood, legumes), alcohol consumption, drinks sweetened with fructose, coffee, dairy products, vegetables and fruits. Diet correction is an important and necessary step in the prevention and treatment of НU. The article reviews the basic principles of dietary management in HU and provides dietary recommendations for patients. For effective prevention and treatment of НU, a mandatory correction of the diet is required.

CURRENT QUESTIONS OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 

900-907 235
Abstract

Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality in the world, second only to cardiovascular diseases. Simultaneously cancer mortality has been steadily decreasing due to the development  of new chemotherapy and targeted  drugs  and the improvement  of existing  treatment protocols.  Improving the prognosis of treatment of cancer patients leads to an unexpected  result - more patients are faced with side effects of cancer treatment. Cardiotoxicity, including  arrhythmia, has  become  a significant  factor  to reduce  the effectiveness  of cancer  patient’s  treatment.  Atrial  fibrillation  is frequent  and persistent a rhythm disorder, affecting  all categories  of patients, especially the elderly. An association  between these two conditions  can be expected, considering the fact that in old age the prevalence of malignant neoplasms  and comorbid pathology predisposing to the onset of AF is high. Therefore, AF may be an additional  factor negatively  influencing the prognosis and treatment tactics in patients with malignant neoplasms. A comprehensive search was conducted  using the keywords  “cancer”, “atrial fibrillation” and “cardiotoxicity” using the PubMed,  Scopus and Cohrane  databases. We reviewed publications having the relationship between AF and cancer. The literature review considered 61 publications on the prevalence of AF in cancer patients, classification, mechanisms of development, the effect of anticancer drugs and other treatment methods on this group of patients. Analyzed articles include clinical guidelines, consensus  expert opinions,  systematic  reviews,  meta-analyzes, and previously  published  reviews of the literature. The problem of cardiotoxic  complications diagnostics is evaluated separately,  incl. arrhythmias, and their monitoring in cancer patients. Therefore, the direction of medicine named "Cardio-oncology" comes to the fore. Interdisciplinary interaction will allow identify cardiotoxic  manifestations at the subclinical stage and optimize anticancer treatment.

908-915 331
Abstract

This review discusses reasons for prolonged use of anticoagulants after discharge of patients with COVID-19 without additional indication for anticoagulation. Data regarding rate of thrombotic and thromboembolic complications in patients with COVID-19 after discharge from the hospital are presented. Large randomized controlled trials EXCLAIM, ADOPT, MAGELLAN, APEX  and MARINER with prolonged use of anticoagulants in patients hospitalized  with acute nonsurgical diseases  before pandemia  of COVID-19 are discussed.  The first prospective  randomized controlled  trial MICHELLE with direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban in a dose 10 mg once daily after discharge of patients with COVID-19 with high risk at least venous thromboembolism are analyzed. It seems that the most relevant approach  for the determination  of indications for prolonged use of anticoagulants in doses dedicated for primary prevention of venous thromboembolism after discharge of patients with COVID-19 without apparent indication for anticoagulation is a modified IMPROVE VTE risk score with the addition of elevated in-hospital D-dimer  level. And the most well-studied approach  for anticoagulation in these patients is a direct peroral anticoagulant rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily for 35 (and  possibly up to 45) days after discharge.

916-926 258
Abstract

The increase in the life expectancy of the population  is accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of diseases for which old and senile age are risk factors. Atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are two diseases that can coexist in a patient. The risk of ac thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events in this case increases due to the mutual aggravating influence of these diseases. In addition,  these patients have a high incidence of coronary  events, and cardiovascular complications are the main cause of death in patients with AF and CKD. Consequently, such patients require an integrated  approach  to treatment,  and their management is a complex  clinical task. The direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban has been most studied in a population  of comorbid  AF and CKD  patients and has proven a high efficacy and safety profile in these patients in randomized controlled trials. In addition,  rivaroxaban has shown  a significant  reduction in the risk of myocardial  infarction  in various patients,  as well as the possibility of preserving renal function to a greater extent compared  with warfarin therapy, and a possible positive effect on reducing  the risk of cognitive impairment.  A single dosing  regimen  can improve adherence  to treatment,  which is one of the key conditions  for achieving  the above effects. Thus, these factors make it possible to achieve comprehensive protection of comorbid  patients with AF and CKD.

ELECTRONIC PAGES 

e1-e18 353
Abstract

Drug-induced atrial fibrillation / flutter (DIAF) is a serious and potentially life-threatening complication of pharmacotherapy. Purpose of the work: systematization and analysis of scientific literature data on drugs, the use of which can cause the development of DIAF, as well as on epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, risk factors, clinical picture, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention of DIAF. Analysis of the literature has shown that many groups of drugs can cause the development of DIAF, with a greater frequency while taking anticancer drugs, drugs for the treatment of the cardiovascular, bronchopulmonary and central nervous systems. The mechanisms and main risk factors for the development of DIAF have not been finally established and are known only for certain drugs, therefore, this section requires further study. The main symptoms of DIAF are due to the severity of tachycardia and their influence on the parameters of central hemodynamics. For diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct an electrocardiogram (ECG) and Holter monitoring of an ECG and echocardiography. Differential diagnosis should be made with AF, which may be caused by other causes, as well as other rhythm and conduction disturbances. Successful treatment of DIAF is based on the principle of rapid recognition and immediate discontinuation of drugs (if possible), the use of which potentially caused the development of adverse drug reactions (ADR). The choice of management strategy: heart rate control or rhythm control, as well as the method of achievement (medication or non-medication), depends on the specific clinical situation. For the prevention of DIAF, it is necessary to instruct patients about possible symptoms and recommend self-monitoring of the pulse. It is important for practitioners to be wary of the risk of DIAF due to the variety of drugs that can potentially cause this ADR.

THERAPY GUIDELINES 

927-930 253
Abstract

The existing system of medical care for patients with acute cerebrovascular accident of atherothrombotic genesis, namely lipid metabolism disorders, the modern evidence base for lipid-lowering therapy in this category of patients and the feasibility of interdisciplinary interaction of cardiologists and neurologists were discussed at a meeting of the expert council of cardiologists and neurologists in Moscow on 2021 July 7.

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