Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology

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Scientific and practical peer-reviewed journal for cardiologists and internists "Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology" has been coming out since 2005 with the support of the Russian Society of Cardiology and the National Medical Research Center for Therapy and Preventive Medicine. It is All-Russian edition with a periodicity of 6 issues a year. The Journal is recommended for the publication of the results of master’s and doctor’s dissertations according to the List of editions of the State Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles. It is distributed by subscription and for free at special events.

The Editorial Board consists of leading Russian scientists in the field of cardiology, preventive cardiology, internal medicine, clinical pharmacology and preventive pharmacotherapy, including 26 Doctors of Science and 6 Academicians of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The Editorial Board consists of well-known National and International cardiologists.

The Journal mainly contains original study articles, scientific reviews, lectures, analysis of clinical practice. The Journal highlights the problems of early diagnosis, primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, associated conditions, effective pharmacotherapy, and current questions of experimental and clinical pharmacology.

All manuscripts are published for free. They are subject to a thorough scientific expertise: double-blind review, plagiarism check, multi-stage editing. Authors are required to submit a statement of disclosure of conflict of interest associated with the publication. Reviewers are experts on the subject of peer-reviewed material. In each issue the best original articles are translated and published in Russian and English languages.

The Journal has website ( in English and Russian where the full texts of published materials for all years are available in open access. The Journal is also available in open access on the website of the Scientific Electronic Library (SEL) and has a high impact factor of the Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI). Full-text electronic versions of all published materials are also available on the website of the Russian Scientific Electronic Library CyberLeninka and international open access website DOAJ. Published materials are presented in the international electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, Index Copernicus, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory.

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Current issue

Vol 17, No 4 (2021)
View or download the full issue PDF (Russian)


512-520 90

Aim. Evaluation of the association of smoking (status, intensity and duration) with indicators of the structure and function of the left ventricle of the heart in a sample of middle-aged men.

Material and methods. This study is part of a 32-year prospective cohort observation of men from childhood (11-12 years). 301 (30.0%) representatives of the original population sample aged 41-44 years were included in the study. The examination included a survey on intensity of smoking, anthropometry, measuring blood pressure, pulse rate, echocardiography, and blood lipid analysis.

Results. 301 men aged 41-44 included 92 (30.6%) men who had never smoked, 73 (24.3%) men smoked in the past and 136 (45.2%) men currently smoke. 75% of current smokers started smoking before age 19, of which 32.3% started smoking before age 15. The duration of smoking cessation among former smokers was 14.4 (12.5; 16.2) years. The average duration of smoking [average (95% confidence interval)] among former smokers was 14.4 (12.5; 16.2), for current smokers – 25.3 (24.6; 26.0) years. Current smoking was statistically significantly associated with higher mean values of the left ventricular myocardium mass (LVMM), the left ventricular myocardial mass index (LVMMI), the end-systolic and end-diastolic interventricular septum thickness (IVSTs/IVSTd), the end-systolic left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWs), and the intensity and duration of current smoking were associated with higher values of the relative wall thickness of the left ventricle, the end-diastolic interventricular septum thickness, the end-systolic interventricular septum thickness, and with low values of the left ventricular stroke volume index (LV SVI). Multiple regression analysis showed that current smoking has an independent effect on the left ventricular myocardium mass, the left ventricular myocardial mass index and the end-diastolic interventricular septum thickness, and the duration and intensity of smoking has an effect on the index of the left ventricular stroke volume index.

Conclusion. Current smoking, duration and intensity in middle-aged men is associated with unfavorable changes in indicators of the structure and function of the left ventricle of the heart. Efforts for primary prevention of smoking should begin as early as childhood and continue into adolescence and young adulthood.

521-527 163

Aim: to investigate the effect of nicotine-containing vapes in comparison with traditional tobacco smoking on markers of vascular wall damage: high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), albuminuria (AU), and ankle-brachial index (ABI).

Material and Methods: We examined 369 young subjects without cardiovascular diseases (age median 21 [20;21] years) (159 men and 210 women). The hsCRP levels in the serum were assessed by immunochromatographic express method. AU was investigated in daily urine by a quantitative reflex photometry. ABI was determined by plethysmography.

Results: All subjects were divided into groups: non-smokers (n=196, 53.1%), smokers of traditional cigarettes (n=83, 22.5%) and smokers of nicotine-containing vapes (n=90, 24.4%). The groups did not differ in main anthropometric data. Median hsCRP levels in smokers (14.30 [11; 16.5] mg/l in tobacco-smokers and 13.15 [9.65; 17.5] mg/l in vapers) were significantly higher vs nonsmokers (3.0 [2; 5.6] mg/l). In tobacco-smokers (33.0  [21.5;  60]  mg)  and  vape  smokers  (45.0  [20;  115]  mg),  the  median  AU  was  statistically  significantly  higher  than  in  non-smokers  (12.0 [10; 20] mg). ABI levels were significantly lower in the groups of tobacco smokers (0.98 [0.91; 0.99]) and vapers (0.85 [0.79; 0.93]) when compared with nonsmokers (1.125 [1.01; 1.18]), and the median ABI in vapers was lower than in tobacco smokers (p<0.001). In the group of tobacco smokers, the hsCRP level correlated with the smoker's index (rs=0.31, p<0.05), and AU (rs=0.54, p<0.05) and ABI (rs=-0.28, p<0.05) with a daily inhaled nicotine dose. In the group of vapers, CRP was associated with smoking experience (rs=0.338, p<0.05), AU with a daily inhaled nicotine dose (rs=0.79,  p<0.05), and  ABI with  BMI (rs=-0.33,  p<0.05), heart  rate (rs=-0.24,  p<0.05) and  smoking experience  (rs=-0.235, p<0.05). According to the results of multivariate regression analysis the hsCRP level was related with only the smoking experience (B=0.91±0.19, p=0.000005), AU level with the daily inhaled nicotine dose (B=1.59±0.7, p=0.0121) and smoking experience (B=3.07±1.23, p=0.0179), and ABI level with only smoking experience (B=-0.09±0.004, p=0.0419).

Conclusion: In smokers, both traditional and vapers, the levels of hsCRP, AU are significantly higher, and the ABI is lower than in healthy young nonsmokers. The most significant influence on the level of hsCRP is exerted by the experience of  tobacco  and  vape  smoking;  to  the  AU  level  – the experience of tobacco and vaping and the daily inhaled nicotine dose, and by the value of the ABI – the experience of vaping.

528-536 90

Aim. To study the prevalence of comorbidity affecting the choice of antihypertensive treatment, as well as the efficacy and safety of the application of a single pill combination of lysinopril, amlodipine and rosuvastatin (SPC LAR) in hypertensive patients.

Material and methods. Observational epidemiological study with the participation of 626 doctors and 13037 hypertensive patients with high cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia treated with SPC LAR were held in 24 cities of Russia from November 2020 to March 2021. Prevalence and types of comorbidity, changes of blood pressure (BP), of total cholesterol (TC) and blood glucose levels and adverse events were studied during observation. Patients had 3 visits – initially, after 4 and 12 weeks. The obtained data was recorded by doctors through a web portal.

Results. Concominant cardiovascular diseases found in all patients (in 38.7% of cases – from 2 to 5 diseases). The most commonly diseases were coronary artery disease (43.1%), metabolic syndrome (36.6%), diabetes (25.2%), chronic heart failure (24.9%), cerebrovascular diseases (12.3%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0.5%). SPC LAR with minimal doses of components (in 41.1% of patients) or with reinforced antihypertensive or hypocholesterolemic effects, based on the experience of treatment, the patient was prescribed as starting treatment with doctors. Reducing the level of systolic and diastolic BP, as well as the level Tc, respectively, by 20.9%, 16.9% and 29.7% found during the study. Target levels of systolic BP were achieved in 97.6% of patients, diastolic BP – in 99.6%, and target levels TC ≤5 mmol/l, ≤4 mmol/l and ≤3 mmol/l were achieved, respectively, in 94.5%, 68.6% and 23.5% patients. No significant dynamics of the level of glycemia were not found. The treatment was well tolerated by patients. Side effects found in 0.53% of patients (more often there was a dry cough, feet edema and headache). Commitment to treatment was 92.7%.

Conclusion. The modern hypertension phenotype has cardiovascular atherosclerosis-associated diseases, which justifies the need to combine antihypertensive and hypolipidemic therapy. Triple SPC LAR, which effectively controlled the blood pressure and improved the violation of lipid metabolism was prescribed to patients in this observational study. The low frequency of side effects and good tolerance of treatment was accompanied by a high adherence of patients to treatment.


537-543 93

Aim. Evaluation of various methods for determining the effectiveness of aspirin therapy and aspirin resistance in patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) depending on the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Materials and methods. The prospective study included 78 patients with various manifestations of CVD. All patients received acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 75 mg daily. Along with a comprehensive clinical examination, a laboratory assessment of platelet function with the usage of Born method with aggregometer, a detailed biochemical blood test (including the determination of the small subunit of low density lipoprotein [s-LDL]), as well as therapeutic drug monitoring of salicylates were performed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer.

Results. In 53% of cases, the absence or insufficiency of the effect of ASA on platelet aggregation was noted. Two subgroups were separately identified: with T2DM; (n=40) and without T2DM (n=38). Insufficient effect of the drug on platelet aggregation characteristics were observed in 65% of patients with T2DM and in 38% without T2DM. The differences were revealed between the groups in triglycerides, s-LDL, glycemic and glycated hemoglobin (p <0.05). In the group of patients with T2DM, the median ASA concentration was 0.01 [0; 0.32] μg/ml, and salicylic acid (SA)

– 0.20 [0; 0.39] μg/ml, while in patients without T2DM higher values were noted: ASA 0.29 [0.15; 0.55] μg/ml, SA – 0.33 [0.05; 0.73] μg/ml. A decrease in the concentration of ASA was associated with an increase in the level of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. There was an increase in the levels of ADPand adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation with a decrease in the concentration of ASA (p=0.004) and SA (p=0.006). Therapeutic drug monitoring revealed a more significant decrease in ASA level in T2DM than in the comparison group (p=0.025).

Conclusion. It is advisable to monitor aspirin therapy both with the assessment of platelet aggregation and with therapeutic drug monitoring. The relationship between the level of ASA and SA in the blood plasma and the functional activity of platelets was confirmed. The presence of T2DM is associated with a decrease in the concentration of ASA and aspirin resistance detected in therapeutic drug monitoring.

544-551 71

Aim. To study the structure of anticoagulant prescription in a general hospital to identify trends and contributing factors.

Materials and methods. The study was conducted in an urban general hospital. According to retrospective retrieval from electronic health records, total 17,129 patients received anticoagulants from 2008 to 2018. Formal appropriateness of oral anticoagulants (OАС) prescriptions for 6,638 patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) was analyzed with CHA2-DS2-VASc score.

Results. Appearance of recommendations for the direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) prescription in clinical guidelines for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and AF management contributed to steady increase in the DOAC taking and decrease in the proportion of warfarin prescription. From 2011 to 2018, the proportion of patients with DOACs prescription increased from 1.7% to 81.5%. The most common indications for anticoagulant were ischemic stroke prevention in AF and VTE with mean rate 75.3% and 23.2%, respectively for the 2011-2018 period. Steady increase in low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prophylactic prescriptions was also shown (Chi-square for linear trend=1340, df=1, p<0.0001). Since 2014, the prescription of LMWH in prophylactic doses increased dramatically, probably related to implementation of computerized decision support system (CDSS) for VTE prevention in the hospital.

Conclusion. The study showed that in a general hospital anticoagulants were prescribed in 19% of hospitalized patient. Not only the new clinical recommendations based on the results of the recent studies on anticoagulants efficacy and safety (external factors), but also implementation standard operating protocols and CDSS, providing physicians current information about the relevant clinical recommendations (internal changes), could influence the appropriateness of anticoagulants prescription.

552-556 69

Aim. To study changes in epithelialization of diabetic foot ulcers and parameters of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) in patients with diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) and atrial fibrillation (AF) during complex therapy with the addition of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC).

Material and methods. An open-label comparative randomized study in parallel groups was performed. Patients with neuroischemic DFS and persistent FA without previous anticoagulant therapy were randomized into two groups: combination therapy for DFS and rivaroxaban (group 1; n=24) or combination therapy for DFS and dabigatran (group 2; n=22). Changes in local status in diabetic foot ulcers, coagulogram parameters and LDF were studied at 4 and 12 weeks.

Results. Complete epithelialization of diabetic foot ulcers after 12 weeks was found in 14 (58.3%) patients in group 1, and in 10 (45.4%) patients in group 2. Statistically significant improvements in LDF parameters were found in both groups in both groups: an increase in the microcirculation index by 53.5% (p=0.02), pulse wave by 124.0% (p=0.003), respiratory wave by 59.4% (p=0.007) was found in group 1. An increase in the microcirculation index by 48.5% (p=0.02), pulse wave by 73.1% (p=0.003), respiratory wave by 47.1% (p=0.03) were found in group 2.

Conclusion. Positive statistically significant changes in epithelialization of diabetic foot ulcers and LDF parameters were found in patients with DFS and AF during 12 weeks of complex therapy with the addition of DOACs (rivaroxaban and dabigatran). Further research for DOACs in DFS patients is needed.


557-563 68

Aim. To study the mid-term effects of enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) in the structural and functional parameters of blood vessels, exercise tolerance and quality of life indicators in patients with verified coronary artery disease (CAD).

Material and methods. Patients (n=70) with verified stable CAD (angina pectoris class II-III) complicated by chronic heart faillure class II-III (NYHA) were included in the study. Data from 65 patients (48 to 74 years old; 45 men and 20 women) are included in the final analysis. All patients had a course of EECP (35 hours procedures with a compression pressure of 220-280 mm Hg). All patients at baseline, 3 and 6 months later had a 6 walk minute test (6WMT), an assessment of the clinical status, quality of life of patients (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire, SF-36). Computer nailfold video capillaroscopy, photoplethysmography with pulse wave recording and contour analysis, applanation tonometry to assess central aortic systolic pressure and radial augmentation index were performed to assess the structural and functional state of large and microcirculatory vessels.

Results. Significant improvement in exercise tolerance both after 3 and after 6 months (increase in distance in 6WMT by 44.6% after 3 months and 34.3% after 6 months, p <0.05), improved quality of life (increased overall score on the SF-36 questionnaire from 50.3±8.1 to 59.8±8.8, p<0.05), an increase in the left ventricular ejection fraction were found. Significant improvement in indicators showing the function of the endothelium of both large vessels (phase shift: from 5.6 [2.45; 7.3] to 6.8 [3.1; 8.1] m / s) and microcirculatory vessels (occlusion index: from 1.51 [1.21; 1.7] to 1.66 [1.2; 1.9]), as well as a decrease in functional disorders of the capillary bed of the skin (% of perfused capillaries, density of the capillary network in the test with reactive hyperemia) were found after 3 months. However, after 6 months, there were no significant changes in these parameters compared to the baseline value. No significant change in indicators showing structural remodeling of both large vessels and microcirculatory vessels was found.

Conclusion. The positive effect of the EECP course on the functional status (exercise tolerance) and quality of life in patients with stable coronary artery disease complicated by chronic heart faillure was found both after 3 and 6 months. Positive dynamics of the functional state of large vessels and microvasculature was found only after 3 months.

564-569 64

Subjects and methods. The study included patients with IDC (group 1; n=111, 89.2% men, average age 51.7±9.7 years) and ICM (group 2; n=110, 91.5% men, average age 58.7±8.4 years). All patients (IDC and ICM) underwent coronary angiography. Based on the anamnesis data and instrumental studies, those patients who could be said to have no risk factors for the development of dilatation of the heart cavities were identified in the group 1. And those patients who were reliably diagnosed with coronary artery disease were in the group 2, that is, dilatation of the heart cavities is due to a previous myocardial infarction, existing angina pectoris. The control group (n=121, average age 53.6±4.8 years) included patients who had no manifestations of cardiovascular diseases. The patients underwent laboratory and instrumental studies, as well as molecular and genetic studies of the A/G polymorphism of the SCN5A gene (rs1805124).

Results. In the group with IDC 51.4% of patients were carriers of the common homozygous AA genotype, the heterozygous AG genotype-40.5%, and the rare homozygous GG genotype-8.1%. In the control group 63.3% of patients were identified as carriers of a homozygous genotype by a common allele, and 33.5% were carriers heterozygous genotype, and homozygous genotype for a rare allele – 3.2%. The analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of carrying the homozygous AA genotype in patients with IDC compared to the control group of the rs1805124 polymorphism of the SCN5A gene. In the group of patients with ICM, the А allele (69.5% vs. 80.1%, p=0.003) and the AA genotype (50.9% vs. 63.3%, p=0.030) were significantly less common than in the control group. The rare homozygous GG genotype was statically more common in patients with ICM compared to the control group (11.8% vs. 3.2%, p=0.004). Also, the G allele in the group of patients with ICM was detected statically significantly more often than in the control group (30.5% vs. 19.9%, p= 0.003).

Conclusion. The polymorphic locus rs1805124 of the SCN5A gene is associated with both IDC and ICM. Homozygous genotype AA and allele A are conditionally protective factors for the development of these conditions in men.

570-575 96

Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ketoprofen as an analgesic therapy in patients with CYP2C9*2 (430C>T) rs179985 and CYP2C9*3 (1075A>C) rs1057910 gene polymorphisms after cardiac surgery.

Material and methods. The study included 90 patients. Postoperative analgesia was perfomed by ketoprofen 100 mg intramuscularly twice daily. The evaluation of pain was determined daily by Numeric Rating Scale for 5 days after cardiac surgery. The safety of ketoprofen was determined by assessing the severity of gastroenterological symptoms using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire and determining the frequency of episodes of acute kidney injury. The material for DNA was venous blood. To determine the single nucleotide genetic polymorphisms CYP2C9*2 (430C>T) rs179985 and CYP2C9*3 (1075A>C) rs1057910, the real-time polymerase chain reaction was used.

Results. In patients with the AA genotype of CYP2C9*3 polymorphism, the intensity of pain on the numeric rating scale scale (points) was significantly higher than in patients with the AC genotype: 7 [6; 8] vs 6 [5; 6] (р=0,003), 7 [6; 8] vs 6 [5; 6] (р=0,04), 6 [5; 7] vs 5 [4; 5] (р=0,04), 5 [3; 6] vs 3 [3; 4] points (р=0,02) on days 1, 2, 3 and 5 of the postoperative period, respectively. The severity of gastroenterological symptoms was higher in patients with a heterozygous CT genotype for the allelic variant CYP2C9*2 than in patients with a wild CС genotype and amounted to 19 [19; 22] vs 18 [16; 20] points, respectively, (p=0,04). The distribution of genotypes for CYP2C9*2 polymorphisms and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms between the groups of acute renal injury did not differ significantly.

Conclusion. Associations of polymorphisms CYP2C9*3 with a lower intensity of pain syndrome and CYP2C9*2 with a greater severity of gastroenterological symptoms were revealed.


584-593 80

The article is devoted to the discussion of the problems of assessing the quality of observational studies in real clinical practice and determining their place in the hierarchy of evidence-based information. The concept of “big data” and the acceptability of using such a term to refer to large observational studies is being discussed. Data on the limitations of administrative and claims databases when performing observational studies to assess the effects of interventions are presented. The concept of confounding factors influencing the results of observational studies is discussed. Modern approaches to reducing the severity of bias in real-life clinical practice studies are presented. The criteria for assessing the quality of observational pharmacoepidemiological studies and the fundamental differences between such studies and randomized clinical trials are presented. The results of systematic reviews of real-life clinical trials to assess the effects of direct oral anticoagulants are discussed.


594-605 67

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with many cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxemia, chest pressure fluctuations and a reaction from the cerebral cortex in the form of a short awakening during sleep (EEG-activation). The consequences of pathological pathways are studied in experimental models involving cell cultures, animals, and healthy volunteers. At present, the negative impact of intermittent hypoxemia on a variety of pathophysiological disorders of the heart and blood vessels (vascular tone fluctuations, thickening of the intimamedia complex in the vascular wall, direct damaging effect on the myocardium) has a great evidence base. Two other pathological components of OSA (pressure fluctuations and EEG-activation) can also affect cardiovascular system, mainly affecting the increase in blood pressure and changing cardiac hemodynamics. Although these reactions are considered separately in the review, with the development of sleep apnea they occur sequentially and are closely interrelated. As a result, these pathological pathways trigger further pathophysiological mechanisms acting on the heart and blood vessels. It is known that these include excessive sympathetic activation, inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic dysregulation. In many respects being links of one process, these mechanisms can trigger damage to the vascular wall, contributing to the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. The accumulated data with varying degrees of reliability confirm the participation of OSA through these processes in the formation of cardiovascular disorders. There are factors limiting direct evidence of this interaction (sleep deprivation, causing similar changes, as well as the inability to share the contribution of other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, in particular arterial hypertension, obesity, which are often associated with OSA). It is necessary to continue the study of processes that implement the pathological effect of OSA on the cardiovascular system.

606-611 60

The review contains actual data on possible approaches aimed at improving the prognosis in a special category of patients with extremely high cardiovascular risk, as well as in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome combined with comorbidity, including multifocal atherosclerosis. Currently, there are no class I recommendations for such patients aimed at reducing the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. It is suggested that suppression of inflammation may be a new therapeutic goal in this category of patients. Given the importance of inflammation in the development and course of atherosclerosis, in recent years there have been repeated attempts to influence the various components of the pro-inflammatory cascade involved in atherogenesis, but not all of them have been successful. Special attention is given to the anti-inflammatory effects of colchicine, a drug that can improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with proven atherosclerosis. The review provides numerous pathogenetic and clinical evidence for the effectiveness of colchicine in patients with various manifestations of atherosclerosis. It is concluded that colchicine is the most promising anti-inflammatory drug that can improve the outcome of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, there is a need to initiate new clinical trial protocols aimed at studying the anti-inflammatory potential of this drug in patients with extreme cardiovascular risk.

612-618 85

The review analyzes the role of assessing the state of the endothelium in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases, stratification of their risks, since endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a crucial predictor of this pathologies. In this regard, this paper presents the modern understanding of the methods for assessing ED, presents the advantages and disadvantages of various techniques. Despite the fact that flow-mediated dilation is widely used as a classical method for studying endothelial function, this technique depends on the physiological state of sensory nerves and calcium-activated potassium channels, cardiac output. This review focuses on new biomarkers for ED such as endothelial microparticles, endoglin and endocan, and discusses the relevance of the criteria for their use in clinical practice. Based on current scientific advances, the authors concluded that among these three newest biomarkers, today, endocan can be considered a more informative and reliable cellular marker of ED. Moreover, the authors have shown that when measured separately, many of the studied classical circulating biomarkers do not provide reliable information about the state of the endothelium, since the endothelial function has a complex physiological nature which therefore raises the question of the advisability of considering a combination of classical and new biomarkers for improving the assessment of the endothelial state.

619-627 69

Currently, the importance of assessing arterial stiffness as an integral indicator of cardiovascular risk, an indicator of arteriosclerosis, and a predictor of cardiovascular events has been demonstrated. The traditional indicator of arterial stiffness-pulse wave velocity-depends on the level of blood pressure, which makes it difficult to use it for dynamic assessment. The proposed new arterial stiffness index-the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), does not depend on the level of blood pressure and is more convenient in practical use. CAVI has been widely used in clinical medicine for the past 15 years as an index for assessing cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, which has allowed for the expansion and deepening of research on this topic. This review focuses primarily on recent publications and new opportunities for evaluating vascular function using CAVI. The review provides information on solving methodological problems in evaluating CAVI, highlights the relationship between CAVI and future cardiovascular events, and provides cross-sectional data on the Association of CAVI with the presence of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. The results of studies on the effect of drug therapy and measures to control risk factors for cardiovascular diseases on CAVI are presented. While it remains unclear how much changes in CAVI over time can affect the forecast, research is currently being conducted in this direction. The use of CAVI also opens up new perspectives in the assessment of cardiovascular interactions, the study of vascular function in vasculitis and vascular injuries, as well as in geriatric medicine (concepts of premature vascular aging and excess vascular aging).


576-583 67

Aim. Development, testing and validation of the original questionnaire “Adherence Scale” (AS) in the PRIORITY and ANTEY observational studies (OS).

Materials and methods. The OS PRIORITY assessed adherence to statins in 298 patients with high and very high cardiovascular risk for 3 months. The OS ANTEY assessed adherence to oral anticoagulants in 201 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation for 1 year. Adherence was assessed using the original AS questionnaire, for which external validation was performed (with the calculation of the Cohen's Kappa coefficient). The reference methods were the validated questionnaire and direct medical interview. And internal validation was performed (consistency of questions on the AS using Spearman's correlation analysis). The sensitivity, specificity (ROC analysis) and retest reliability of the adherence scale (Cronbach's alpha) were also determined.

Results. In the OS PRIORITY Cohen's kappa for the AS and the reference method of direct medical survey was 0.76 (high consistency), and for the AS and the reference method of the validated questionnaire=0.28 (low consistency). High internal consistency of the questionnaire questions (correlation coefficient=0.78, p<0.0001) confirms the internal validity of the adherence scale. Evaluation of the main characteristics of the modified AS in the OS ANTEY showed high consistency between the results of the AS and the validated questionnaire: Cohen's kappa=0.94 (high external validity of the AS). The retest reliability of the AS was 0.76 (Cronbach's alpha). The internal consistency of the questionnaire was confirmed by a strong and statistically significant correlation between the test questions: Spearman's correlation coefficient=0.80, p<0.0001. The sensitivity of the test, determined using the ROC analysis, was 89%, and the specificity was 62%.

Conclusion. The developed and tested new original questionnaire (modified version) – the AS – showed high indicators of reliability, validity and sensitivity. This ensures its reliability and ease of use for assessing various types of adherence and determining the leading factors of non-adherence, and also allows its use in scientific studies and clinical practice.


628-637 71

Comprehensive protection of a patient with atrial fibrillation (AF) should not only reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism, but also reduce the risk coronary events and ensure high adherence to treatment. In accordance with consensus document issued by the European Heart Rhythm Association, European Society of Cardiology, European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions, as well as with other recent Russian Society of Cardiology Guidelines, the management of antithrombotic therapy of patients with AF undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) requires that multiple and interconnected issues. The review article addresses questions about duration of initial triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT), selection of P2Y12 inhibitor, choice of oral anticoagulant to be combined with antiplatelet therapy, intensity of oral anticoagulation throughout combination therapy, and choice of oral anticoagulant for indefinite therapy. In general, it is recommended to refuse the routine use of TAT for most patients. Accordingly, for patients who need both anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy, it is strongly recommended that the default strategy after recent PCI is a double antithrombotic therapy consisting of an anticoagulant and one antiplatelet, preferably from the group of P2Y12 inhibitors. When conducting combined antithrombotic therapy, preference should be given to clopidogrel compared to other, more powerful P2Y12 inhibitors and direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) instead of vitamin K antagonists. The primary choice of DOAC in patients with AF who have undergone PCI should be carried out taking into account such factors as individual risk of stroke and bleeding, adherence to treatment, concomitant diseases, pharmacological characteristics and evidence base of a specific DOAC, taking other medications, etc. The pharmacokinetic features of rivaroxaban, which create the possibility of its single administration, the evidence base for reducing coronary risks in various variants of the course of coronary heart disease, determines the special positions of the drug for the comprehensive protection of patients with AF after PCI.


638-641 64

The main stages of the creative path of the scientist with a world-famous, professor, the Honored Worker of Science of the Russian Federation, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Alexey Petrovich Golikov are presented in the article.


642-661 158

High blood pressure is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as well as cognitive decline and loss of autonomy in the elderly and old age. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in populations of older patients living at home with low comorbidity and preserved autonomy indicate the benefit of lowering elevated blood pressure in patients over 80 years of age. Older patients with senile asthenia, loss of autonomy and other geriatric problems were excluded from RCTs, and observational studies in these groups of patients indicate an increase in morbidity and mortality with lower blood pressure and antihypertensive therapy. Obviously, in very elderly patients, a universal strategy for the treatment of arterial hypertension cannot be applied due to the significant heterogeneity of their functional status. The geriatric approach to the management of arterial hypertension in older patients involves an assessment of the functional status, the presence of senile asthenia, and the degree of autonomy for the choice of antihypertensive therapy tactics.


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