Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology

Advanced search


Full Text:


The Task Force on Diabetes and Cardiovascular diseases of the European Society of Cardiology and of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes.

European Heart Journal (2007) 28, 88-136.

About the Authors

L. Ryden

Russian Federation

E. Standl

Russian Federation

M. Bartnik

Russian Federation

G. Van den Berghe

Russian Federation

J. Betteridge

Russian Federation

M.J. de Boer

Russian Federation

F. Cosentino

Russian Federation

B. Jonsson

Russian Federation

M. Laakso

Russian Federation

K. Malmberg

Russian Federation

S. Priori

Russian Federation

J. Ostergren

Russian Federation

J. Tuomilehto

Russian Federation

I. Thrainsdottir

Russian Federation


1. DeFronzo RA. International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus. 3rd ed. Chichester, West Sussex; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley; 2004.

2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance. National Diabetes Data Group. Diabetes 1979; 28:1039–1057.

3. WHO Expert Committee on Diabetes Mellitus, World Health Organization. WHO Expert Committee on Diabetes Mellitus Second Report. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1980.

4. WHO Consultation. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Report no. 99.2. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 1999.

5. WHO Study Group on Diabetes Mellitus, World Health Organization. Diabetes mellitus report of a WHO Study Group. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1985.

6. Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 1997;20:1183–1197.

7. Genuth S, Alberti KG, Bennett P, Buse J, Defronzo R, Kahn R et al. Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2003;26:3160–3167.

8. Kuzuya T, Matsuda A. Classification of diabetes on the basis of etiologies versus degree of insulin deficiency. Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 219–220.

9. Laakso M, Pyorala K. Age of onset and type of diabetes. Diabetes Care 1985;8:114–117.

10. Gottsater A, Landin-Olsson M, Fernlund P, Lernmark A, Sundkvist G. Beta-cell function in relation to islet cell antibodies during the first 3 yr after clinical diagnosis of diabetes in type II diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1993;16:902–910.

11. Tuomilehto J, Zimmet P, Mackay IR, Koskela P, Vidgren G, Toivanen L et al. Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase as predictors of insulindependent diabetes mellitus before clinical onset of disease. Lancet 1994;343:1383–1385.

12. Bruce DG, Chisholm DJ, Storlien LH, Kraegen EW. Physiological importance of deficiency in early prandial insulin secretion in non-insulindependent diabetes. Diabetes 1988;37:736–744.

13. Kim C, Newton KM, Knopp RH. Gestational diabetes and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:1862–1868.

14. The DECODE Study Group. Age- and sex-specific prevalences of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in 13 European cohorts. Diabetes Care 2003;26:61–69.

15. The DECODE Study Group. Glucose tolerance and cardiovascular mortality: comparison of fasting and two-hour diagnostic criteria. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:397–405.

16. Ceriello A, Hanefeld M, Leiter L, Monnier L, Moses A, Owens D et al. Postprandial glucose regulation and diabetic complications. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:2090–2095.

17. Ward WK, Beard JC, Halter JB, Pfeifer MA, Porte D Jr. Pathophysiology of insulin secretion in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1984;7:491–502.

18. Pecoraro RE, Chen MS, Porte D Jr. Glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose in the assessment of outpatient glycaemic control in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1982;5:592–599.

19. The DECODE Study Group. Glucose tolerance and mortality: comparison of WHO and American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. Lancet 1999;354:617–621.

20. The DECODE Study Group. Is the current definition for diabetes relevant to mortality risk from all causes and cardiovascular and noncardiovascular diseases? Diabetes Care 2003;26:688–696.

21. The DECODE Study Group. Will new diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus change phenotype of patients with diabetes? Reanalysis of European epidemiological data. BMJ 1998;317:371–375.

22. Harris MI, Flegal KM, Cowie CC, Eberhardt MS, Goldstein DE, Little RR et al. Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Diabetes Care 1998; 21: 518–524.

23. King H, Aubert RE, Herman WH. Global burden of diabetes, 1995–2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1414–1431.

24. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1047–1053.

25. Engelgau MM, Colagiuri S, Ramachandran A, Borch-Johnsen K, Narayan KM. Prevention of type 2 diabetes: issues and strategies for identifying persons for interventions. Diabetes Technol Ther 2004;6:874–882.

26. Engelgau MM, Narayan KM, Herman WH. Screening for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1563–1580.

27. Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J. The major diabetes prevention trials. Curr Diab Rep 2003;3:115–122.

28. Qiao Q, Jousilahti P, Eriksson J, Tuomilehto J. Predictive properties of impaired glucose tolerance for cardiovascular risk are not explained by the development of overt diabetes during follow-up. Diabetes Care 2003;26:2910–2914.

29. Qiao Q, Hu G, Tuomilehto J, Nakagami T, Balkau B, Borch-Johnsen K et al. Age- and sex-specific prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in 11 Asian cohorts. Diabetes Care 2003;26: 1770–1780.

30. Bartnik M, Ryde´n L, Malmberg K,O¨hrvik J, Pyo¨ra¨la¨ K, Standl E, Ferrari R, Simoons M, Soler-Soler J, on behalf of the Euro Heart Survey Investigators. Oral glucose tolerance test is needed for appropriate classification of glucose regulation in patients with coronary artery disease. Heart 2007;93:72–77.

31. Lindstrom J, Tuomilehto J. The diabetes risk score: a practical tool to predict type 2 diabetes risk. Diabetes Care 2003;26:725–731.

32. Saaristo T, Peltonen M, Lindstrom J, Saarikoski L, Sundvall J, Eriksson JG et al. Cross-sectional evaluation of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score: a tool to identify undetected type 2 diabetes, abnormal glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome. Diab Vasc Dis Res 2005;2:67–72.

33. De Berardis G, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S et al. Longitudinal assessment of quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes and self-reported erectile dysfunction. Diabetes Care 2005;28:2637–2643.

34. Rathmann W, Haastert B, Icks A, Lowel H, Meisinger C, Holle R, Giani G. High prevelance of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in Southern Ger￾many: target populations for efficient screening—The Kora survey 2000. Diabetolgia 2003;46:182–189.

35. Orchard TJ, The impact of gender and general risk factors on the occurrence of atherosclerotic vascular disease in non-insulin-depend￾ent diabetes mellitus. Ann Med 1996;28:323–333.

36. King H, Rewers M and WHO Ad Hoc Diabetes Reporting Group. Global Estimates for Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Adults. Diabetes Care 1993;16:157–177.

37. Ramanchandran A, Snehalatha C, Mary S, Mukesh B, Bhaskar AD, Vijay V. Indian Diabetes Prevention Programme (IDPP). Diabetologia 2006; 49:289–297.

38. Qiao Q et al. Epidemiology and Geography of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. In DeFronzo QA et al., eds. International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus. John Wiley & Sons; Milan: 2004. p33–56.

39. Laakso M., Hyperglycaemia and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1999;48:937–942.

40. Karvonen M, Viik-Kajander M, Moltchanova E, Libman I, LaPorte R, Tuomilehto J. Incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes worldwide. Di￾abetes Mondiale (DiaMond) Project Group. Diabetes Care 2000; 23:1516–1526.

41. Lee ET, Keen H, Bennett PH, Fuller JH, Lu M. Follow-up of the WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes: general description and morbidity. Diabetologia 2001;44(Suppl. 2):S3–S13.

42. Morrish NJ, Wang SL, Stevens LK, Fuller JH, Keen H. Mortality and causes of death in the WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes. Diabetologia 2001;44(Suppl. 2):S14–S21.

43. Koivisto VA, Stevens LK, Mattock M, Ebeling P, Muggeo M, Stephenson J, Idzior-Walus B. Cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in IDDM in Europe. EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study Group. Diabetes Care 1996;19:689–697.

44. Tuomilehto J, Borch-Johnsen K, Molarius A, Forsen T, Rastenyte D, Sarti C, Reunanen A. Incidence of cardiovascular disease in Type 1 (in￾sulindependent) diabetic subjects with and without diabetic nephropathy in Finland. Diabetologia 1998;41:784–790.

45. Nathan DM, Cleary PA, Backlund JY, Genuth SM, Lachin JM, Orchard TJ, Raskin P, Zinman B et al. Intensive diabetes treatment and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:2643–2653.

46. Orchard TJ, Olson JC, Erbey JR, Williams K, Forrest KY, Smithline Kinder L, Ellis D, Becker DJ. Insulin resistance-related factors, but not glycaemia, predict coronary artery disease in type 1 diabetes: 10-year follow-up data from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Compli￾cations Study. Diabetes Care 2003;26:1374–1379.

47. Juutilainen A et al. Type 2 diabetes as a ‘coronary heart disease equivalent’: an 18-year prospective population-based study in Finnish subjects. Diabetes Care 2005;28:2901–2907.

48. Hu FB et al. The impact of diabetes mellitus on mortality from all causes and coronary heart disease in women: 20 years of follow-up. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:1717–1723.

49. Hu G et al. Sex differences in cardiovascular and total mortality among diabetic and non-diabetic individuals with or without history of myocardial infarction. Diabetologia 2005;48:856–861.

50. International Collaborative Group. Asymptomatic hyperglycaemia and coronary heart disease: a series of papers by the International Collaborative Group based on studies in fifteen populations. J Chron Dis 1979;32:683–837.

51. Barrett-Connor E, Ferrara A. Isolated postchallenge hyperglycaemia and the risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in older women and men. The Rancho Bernardo Study. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1236–1239.

52. Barzilay JI et al. Cardiovascular disease in older adults with glucose disorders: comparison of American Diabetes Association criteria for diabetes mellitus with WHO criteria. Lancet 1999;354:622–625.

53. Schernthaner G, Matthews DR, Charbonnel B, Hanefeld M, Brunetti P; Quartet [corrected] Study Group. Efficacy and safety of pioglita￾zone versus metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a doubleblind, randomized trial. J Clin Endocrin Metab 2004;89: 6068–6076.

54. Charbonnel BH, Matthews DR, Schernthaner G, Hanefeld M, Brunetti P; QUARTET Study Group. A long-term comparison of pioglitazone and gliclazide in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, doubleblind, parallel-group comparison trial. Diabet Med 2005;22:399–405.

55. Borch-Johnsen K. The new classification of diabetes mellitus and IGT: a critical approach. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2001;109 (Suppl.2): S86–S93.

56. Fontbonne A et al. Hypertriglyceridaemia as a risk factor of coronary heart disease mortality in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. Results from the 11-year follow-up of the Paris Prospective Study. Diabetologia 1989;32:300–304.

57. Fuller JH et al. Coronary-heart-disease risk and impaired glucose tolerance. The Whitehall study. Lancet 1980;1:1373–1376.

58. Lowe LP et al. Diabetes, asymptomatic hyperglycaemia, and 22-year mortality in black and white men. The Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry Study. Diabetes Care 1997;20:163–169.

59. Rodriguez BL et al. Glucose intolerance and 23-year risk of coronary heart disease and total mortality: The Honolulu Heart Programme. Di￾abetes Care 1999;22:1262–1265.

60. Saydah SH et al. Postchallenge hyperglycaemia and mortality in a national sample of U.S. adults. Diabetes Care 2001;24:1397–1402.

61. Scheidt-Nave C et al. Sex differences in fasting glycaemia as a risk factor for ischemic heart disease death. Am J Epidemiol 1991;133: 565–576.

62. Shaw JE et al. Isolated post-challenge hyperglycaemia confirmed as a risk factor for mortality. Diabetologia 1999;42:1050–1054.

63. Tominaga M et al. Impaired glucose tolerance is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but not impaired fasting glucose. The Funagata Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 1999;22:920–924.

64. Coutinho M et al. The relationship between glucose and incident cardiovascular events. A metaregression analysis of published data from 20 studies of 95,783 individuals followed for 12.4 years. Diabetes Care 1999;22:233–240.

65. Pyorala K et al. Glucose tolerance and coronary heart disease: Helsinki Policemen Study. J Chronic Dis 1979;32:729–745.

66. Cheung NW, Wong VW, McLean M. The Hyperglycaemia: Intensive Insulin Infusion in Infarction (HI-5) Study. A randomized controlled trial of insulin infusion therapy for myocardial infarction. Diabetes Care 2006;29:765–770.

67. Saydah SH et al. Subclinical states of glucose intolerance and risk of death in the U.S. Diabetes Care 2001;24:447–453.

68. The DECODE Study Group. Gender difference in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality related to hyperglaemia and newly-diagnosed di￾abetes. Diabetologia 2003;46:608–617.

69. The DECODE Study Group Consequences of the new diagnostic criteria for diabetes in older men and women. DECODE Study (Diabetes Epidemiology: Collaborative Analysis of Diagnostic Criteria in Europe). Diabetes Care 1999;22:1667–1671.

70. Chiasson JL et al. Acarbose treatment and the risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: the STOP-NIDDM trial. JAMA 2003;290:486–494.

71. UKPDS, Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Lancet 1998;352:837–853.

72. Hanefeld M et al. Risk factors for myocardial infarction and death in newly detected NIDDM: the Diabetes Intervention Study, 11-year follow-up. Diabetologia 1996;39:1577–1583.

73. Hanefeld M et al. Acarbose reduces the risk for myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetic patients: meta-analysis of seven long-term studies. Eur Heart J 2004;25:10–16.

74. Tunstall-Pedoe H et al. Myocardial infarction and coronary deaths in the World Health Organization MONICA Project. Registration procedures, event rates, and case-fatality rates in 38 populations from 21 countries in four continents. Circulation 1994;90:583–612.

75. Tuomilehto J, Kuulasmaa K. WHO MONICA Project: assessing CHD mortality and morbidity. Int J Epidemiol 1989;18(Suppl. 1):S38–S45.

76. Kannel WB, McGee DL. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The Framingham study. JAMA 1979;241:2035–2038.

77. Barrett-Connor EL et al. Why is diabetes mellitus a stronger risk factor for fatal ischemic heart disease in women than in men? The Rancho Bernardo Study. JAMA 1991;265:627–631.

78. Juutilainen A et al. Gender difference in the impact of Type 2 diabetes on coronary heart disease risk. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2898–2904.

79. Janghorbani M et al. A prospective population based study of gender differential in mortality from cardiovascular disease and ‘all causes’ in asymptomatic hyperglycaemics. J Clin Epidemiol 1994;47:397–405.

80. Kanaya AM et al. Glycaemic effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy: the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2003;138:1–9.

81. Huxley R, Barzi F, Woodward M. Excess risk of fatal coronary heart disease associated with diabetes in men and women: meta-analysis of 37 prospective cohort studies. BMJ 2006;332:73–78.

82. Adams HP Jr et al. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Arch Neurol 1984;41:1033–1035.

83. Barrett-Connor E, Khaw KT. Diabetes mellitus: an independent risk factor for stroke? Am J Epidemiol 1988;128:116–123.

84. Kittner SJ et al. Black-white differences in stroke incidence in a national sample. The contribution of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. JAMA 1990;264:1267–1270.

85. Lehto S et al. Predictors of stroke in middle-aged patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Stroke 1996;27:63–68.

86. Rodriguez BL et al. Risk of hospitalized stroke in men enrolled in the Honolulu Heart Programme and the Framingham Study: A comparison of incidence and risk factor effects. Stroke 2002;33:230–236.

87. Tuomilehto J et al. Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for death from stroke. Prospective study of the middle-aged Finnish population. Stroke 1996;27:210–215.

88. Wolf PA et al. Probability of stroke: a risk profile from the Framingham Study. Stroke 1991;22:312–318.

89. Yusuf HR et al. Impact of multiple risk factor profiles on determining cardiovascular disease risk. Prev Med 1998;27:1–9.

90. Ayala C et al. Sex differences in US mortality rates for stroke and stroke subtypes by race/ethnicity and age, 1995–1998. Stroke 2002;33: 1197–1201.

91. Mohr JP et al. The Harvard Cooperative Stroke Registry: a prospective registry. Neurology 1978;28:754–762.

92. Qureshi AI et al. Risk factors for multiple intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurgery 1998;43:22–26; discussion 26–27.

93. Thorvaldsen P et al. Stroke incidence, case fatality, and mortality in the WHO MONICA project. World Health Organization Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease. Stroke 1995;26: 361–367.

94. Longstreth WT Jr et al. Incidence, manifestations, and predictors of brain infarcts defined by serial cranial magnetic resonance imaging in the elderly: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Stroke 2002;33: 2376–2382.

95. Vermeer SE et al. Prevalence and risk factors of silent brain infarcts in the population-based Rotterdam Scan Study. Stroke 2002;33:21–25.

96. Simpson RK Jr et al. The influence of diabetes mellitus on outcome from subarachnoid hemorrhage. Diabetes Res 1991;16:165–169.

97. Hu HH et al. Prevalence of stroke in Taiwan. Stroke 1989;20: 858–863.

98. Oppenheimer SM et al. Diabetes mellitus and early mortality from stroke. BMJ (Clin Res Ed) 1985;291:1014–1015.

99. Kiers L et al. Stroke topography and outcome in relation to hyperglycaemia and diabetes. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1992;55: 263–270.

100. Kushner M et al. Relation of hyperglycaemia early in ischemic brain infarction to cerebral anatomy, metabolism, and clinical outcome. Ann Neurol 1990;28:129–135.

101. Toni D et al. Does hyperglycaemia play a role on the outcome of acute ischaemic stroke patients? J Neurol 1992;239:382–386.

102. Deckert T, Poulsen JE, Larsen M. Prognosis of diabetics with diabetes onset before the age of thirty-one. I. Survival, causes of death, and complications. Diabetologia 1978;14:363–370.

103. Fuller JH, Stevens LK, Wang SL. International variations in cardiovascular mortality associated with diabetes mellitus: the WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes. Ann Med 1996;28: 319–322.

104. Matz K et al. Disorders of glucose metabolism in acute stroke patients: an underrecognized problem. Diabetes Care 2006;29: 792–797.

105. Vancheri F et al. Impaired glucose metabolism in patients with acute stroke and no previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. QJM 2005; 98:871–878.

106. Gu K, Cowie CC, Harris MI. Diabetes and decline in heart disease mortality in US adults. JAMA 1999;281:1291–1297.

107. American Diabetes Association. Clinical practice recommendations 1999. Diabetes Care 1999;22(Suppl. 1):S1–S114.

108. Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in life style among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1343–1350.

109. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with life style intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346:393–403.

110. American College of Endocrinology. American College of Endocrinology Consensus Statement on Guidelines for Glycemic Control. En￾docr Pract 2002;8(Suppl. 1):1–82.

111. Franciosi M, De Berardis G, Rossi MC et al. Use of the diabetes risk score for opportunistic screening of undiagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance: the IGLOO (Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Long-Term Outcomes Observational) study. Diabetes Care, 2005;28:1187–1194.

112. Sacks FM, Pfeffer MA, Moye LA, Rouleau JL, Rutherford JD, Cole TG et al. The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med 1996;335:1001–1009.

113. Kylin E. Studies of the hypertension-hyperglycaemia hyperuricemia syndrome. (Studien ueber das hypertonie-hyperglyka¨miehyperurika¨miesyndrom.) Zentral-blatt fuer Innere Medizin 1923; 44: 105–127.

114. Vague J. La differenciation sexuelle. Facteur determinant des formes de l’obesite. Press Med 1947;30:339–340.

115. Hanefeld M, Leonhardt W. Das metabolische syndrom. Dtsch Ges Wesen 1981;36:545–551.

116. Kissebah AH, Vydelingum N, Murray R et al. Relation of body fat distribution to metabolic complications of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1982;54:254–260.

117. Krotkiewski M et al. Impact of obesity on metabolism in men and women. Importance of regional adipose tissue distribution. J Clin In￾vest 1983;72:1150–1162.

118. Reaven GM. Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 1988;37:1595–1607.

119. Haffner SM, Valdez RA, Hazuda HP et al. Prospective analysis of the insulin-resistance syndrome (syndrome X). Diabetes 1992;41:715–722.

120. Grundy SM. Hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. Am J Cardiol 1999;83:25F–29F.

121. Meigs JB. Invited commentary: insulin resistance syndrome? Syndrome X? Multiple metabolic syndrome? A syndrome at all? Factor analysis reveals patterns in the fabric of correlated metabolic risk fac￾tors. Am J Epidemiol 2000;152:908–911; discussion 912.

122. Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classifi￾cation of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med 1998;15:539–553.

123. Prevention of cardiovascular events and death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of initial cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med 1998;339:1349–1357.

124. Balkau B, Charles MA, Drivsholm T, Borch-Johnsen K et al. Frequency of the WHO metabolic syndrome in European cohorts, and an alternative definition of an insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes Metab 2002; 28:364–376.

125. Balkau B, Charles MA. Comment on the provisional report from the WHO consultation. European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR). Diabet Med 1999;16:442–443.

126. Adult Treatment Panel III. Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evalua￾tion, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 2002;106:3143–3421.

127. Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) Expert Panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001;285:2486–2497.

128. Bloomgarden ZT. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Consensus Conference on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome, 25–26 August 2002, Washington, DC. Diabetes Care 2003;26:933–939.

129. American College of Endocrinology Task Force on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome, American College of Endocrinology Position State￾ment on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome. Endocr Pract 2003;9:237–252.

130. Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. The metabolic syndrome—a new worldwide definition. Lancet 2005;366:1059–1062.

131. Isomaa B et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2001;24:683–689.

132. Lakka HM et al. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovas￾cular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA 2002;288:2709–2716.

133. The DECODE Study Group. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in nondiabetic European men and women. Arch Intern Med 2004;164: 1066–1076.

134. Juutilainen A et al. Proteinuria and metabolic syndrome as predictors of cardiovascular death in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic men and women. Diabetologia 2006;49:56–65.

135. Resnick HE et al. Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic American Indians: The Strong Heart Study. Diabetes Care 2003;26:861–867.

136. Ford ES. The metabolic syndrome and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all-causes: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II Mortality Study. Atherosclerosis 2004;173:309–314.

137. Hunt KJ et al. National Cholesterol Education Programme versus World Health Organization metabolic syndrome in relation to allcause and cardiovascular mortality in the San Antonio Heart Study. Circulation 2004;110:1251–1257.

138. Stern MP et al. Does the metabolic syndrome improve identification of individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease? Diabetes Care 2004;27:2676–2681.

139. Lawlor DA, Smith GD, Ebrahim S. Does the new International Diabetes Federation definition of the metabolic syndrome predict CHD any more strongly than older definitions? Findings from the British Women’s Heart and Health Study. Diabetologia 2006;49:41–48.

140. Wilson PW et al. Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk fac￾tor categories. Circulation 1998;97:1837–1847.

141. Knuiman MW, Vu HT. Prediction of coronary heart disease mortality in Busselton, Western Australia: an evaluation of the Framingham, national health epidemiologic follow up study, and WHO ERICA risk scores. J Epidemiol Community Health 1997;51:515–519.

142. Thomsen TF et al. A cross-validation of risk-scores for coronary heart disease mortality based on data from the Glostrup Population Studies and Framingham Heart Study. Int J Epidemiol 2002;31: 817–822.

143. Haq IU et al. Is the Framingham risk function valid for northern European populations? A comparison of methods for estimating ab￾solute coronary risk in high risk men. Heart 1999;81:40–46.

144. D’Agostino RB Sr et al. Validation of the Framingham coronary heart disease prediction scores: results of a multiple ethnic groups investigation. JAMA 2001;286:180–187.

145. Game FL, Jones AF. Coronary heart disease risk assessment in dia￾betes mellitus—a comparison of PROCAM and Framingham risk as￾sessment functions. Diabet Med 2001;18:355–359.

146. Bastuji-Garin S et al. The Framingham prediction rule is not valid in a European population of treated hypertensive patients. J Hypertens 2002;20:1973–1980.

147. Cappuccio FP et al. Application of Framingham risk estimates to ethnic minorities in United Kingdom and implications for primary pre￾vention of heart disease in general practice: cross sectional population based study. BMJ 2002;325:1271.

148. Hense HW et al. Framingham risk function overestimates risk of coronary heart disease in men and women from Germany—results from the MONICA Augsburg and the PROCAM cohorts. Eur Heart J 2003;24:937–945.

149. Empana JP et al. Are the Framingham and PROCAM coronary heart disease risk functions applicable to different European populations? The PRIME Study. Eur Heart J 2003;24:1903–1911.

150. Conroy RM et al. Estimation of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J 2003;24: 987–1003.

151. EUROASPIRE II Euro Heart Survey Programmee. Life style and risk factor management and use of drug therapies in coronary patients from 15 countries: principal results from EUROASPIRE II Euro Heart Survey Programme. Eur Heart J 2001;22:554–572.

152. De Bacquer D et al. Predictive value of classical risk factors and their control in coronary patients: a follow-up of the EUROASPIRE I cohort. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2003;10:289–295.

153. Athyros VG, Papageorgiou AA, Symeonidis AN, Didangelos TP, Pehli￾vanidis AN, Bouloukos VI, Mikhailidis DP; GREACE Study Collabora￾tive Group. Early benefit from structured care with atorvastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Angiology 2003;54:679–690.

154. Arampatzis CA, Goedhart D, Serruys P, Saia F, Lemos P, de Feyter P. Fluvastatin reduces the impact of diabetes on long-term outcome after coronary intervention—A Lescol Intervention Prevention Study (LIPS) substudy. Am Heart J 2005;149:329–335.

155. Williams B, Lacy PS, Thom SM, Cruickshank K, Stanton A, Collier D, Hughes AD, Thurston H, O’Rourke M, CAFE Investigators, AngloScandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial Investigators, CAFE Steering Committee and Writing Committee. Differential impact of blood pressure-lowering drugs on central aortic pressure and clinical outcomes: principal results of the Conduit Artery Function Evaluation (CAFE) study. Circulation 2006;7:1213–1225.

156. Jeppsson JO, Jerntorp P, Almer LO, Persson R, Ekberg G, Sundkvist G. Capillary blood on filter paper for determination of HbA1c by ion exchange chromatography. Diabetes Care 1996;19:142–145.

157. The DECODE Study Group. Prediction of the risk of cardiovascular mortality using a score that includes glucose as a risk factor. The DECODE Study. Diabetologia 2004;47:2118–2128.

158. Rose G. Strategy of prevention: lessons from cardiovascular disease. BMJ (Clin Res Ed) 1981;282:1847–1851.

159. Puska P, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A, Vartiainen E. The North Karelia Project: 20 year results and experiences. Helsinki: National Public Health Institute; 1995.

160. Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F, McQueen M, Budaj A, Pais P, Varigos J, Lisheng L. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case–control study. Lancet 2004;364:937–952.

161. Fox CS, Coady S, Sorlie PD, Levy D, Meigs JB, D’Agostino RB Sr, Wilson PW, Savage PJ. Trends in cardiovascular complications of diabetes. JAMA 2004;292:2495–2499.

162. Iozzo P, Chareonthaitawee P, Rimoldi O, Betteridge DJ, Camici PG, Ferranini E. Mismatch between insulin-mediated glucose uptake and blood flow in the heart of patients with type II diabetes. Diabetolo￾gia 2002;45:1404–1409.

163. Silventoinen K et al. The validity of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score for the prediction of the incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke, and total mortality. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2005;12: 451–458.

164. McNeill AM et al. The metabolic syndrome and 11-year risk of incident cardiovascular disease in the atherosclerosis risk in communi￾ties study. Diabetes Care 2005;28:385–390.

165. Greenland P et al. Coronary artery calcium score combined with Framingham score for risk prediction in asymptomatic individuals. JAMA 2004;291:210–215.

166. Braunwald E. Shattuck lecture—cardiovascular medicine at the turn of the millennium: triumphs, concerns, and opportunities. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1360–1369.

167. Akosah KO et al. Preventing myocardial infarction in the young adult in the first place: how do the National Cholesterol Education Panel III guidelines perform? J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:1475–1479.

168. Brindle P et al. Predictive accuracy of the Framingham coronary risk score in British men: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2003;327: 1267.

169. Orford JL et al. A comparison of the Framingham and European Society of Cardiology coronary heart disease risk prediction models in the normative aging study. Am Heart J 2002;144:95–100.

170. Knowler WC et al. Preventing non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetes 1995;44:483–488.

171. Costacou T, Mayer-Davis EJ. Nutrition and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Annu Rev Nutr 2003;23:147–170.

172. Hu G et al. Occupational, commuting, and leisure-time physical activity in relation to risk for type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Finnish men and women. Diabetologia 2003;46:322–329.

173. Hu G et al. Physical activity, body mass index, and risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with normal or impaired glucose regulation. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:892–896.

174. Eriksson KF, Lindgarde F. Prevention of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus by diet and physical exercise. The 6-year Malmo feasibility study. Diabetologia 1991;34:891–898.

175. Pan X et al. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 1997;20:537–544.

176. Iozzo P, Chareonthaitawee P, Dutka D, Betteridge DJ, Ferranini E, Camici PG. Independent association of type 2 diabetes and coro￾nary artery disease with myocardial insulin resistance. Diabetes 2002;51:3020–3024.

177. Stettler C, Allemann S, Ju¨ni P, Cull CA, Holman RR, Egger M, Kra¨henbu¨hl S, Diem P. Glycemic control and macrovascular disease in types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus: meta-analysis of randomized tri￾als. Am Heart J 2006;152:27–38.

178. Chiasson JL et al. Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomized trial. Lancet 2002;359: 2072–2077.

179. Lindstrom J et al. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS): life style intervention and 3-year results on diet and physical activity. Diabetes Care 2003;26:3230–3236.

180. American Diabetes Association. The prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:742–749.

181. Shepherd J, Barter P, Carmena R, Deedwania P, Fruchart JC, Haffner S, Hsia J, Breazna A, LaRosa J, Grundy S, Waters D. Effect of lowering LDL cholesterol substantially below currently recommended lev￾els in patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes: the Treating to New Targets (TNT) Study. Diabetes Care 2006;29:1220–1226.

182. Sawicki PT, Kaiser S, Heinemann L, Frenzel H, Berger M. Prevalence of renal artery stenosis in diabetes mellitus—an autopsy study. J Intern Med 1991;229:489–492.

183. Wong ND et al. Preventing coronary events by optimal control of blood pressure and lipids in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Am J Cardiol 2003;91:1421–1426.

184. Glumer C et al. A Danish diabetes risk score for targeted screening: the Inter99 study. Diabetes Care 2004;27:727–733.

185. Spijkerman AM et al. The performance of a risk score as a screening test for undiagnosed hyperglycaemia in ethnic minority groups: data from the 1999 health survey for England. Diabetes Care 2004;27: 116–122.

186. Wei M et al. Low cardiorespiratory fitness and physical inactivity as predictors of mortality in men with type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med 2000;132:605–611.

187. Hu FB et al. Physical activity and risk for cardiovascular events in di￾abetic women. Ann Intern Med 2001;134:96–105.

188. Batty GD et al. Physical activity and cause-specific mortality in men with Type 2 diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance: evidence from the Whitehall study. Diabet Med 2002;19:580–588.

189. Gregg EW et al. Relationship of walking to mortality among US adults with diabetes. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1440–1447.

190. Tanasescu M et al. Physical activity in relation to cardiovascular disease and total mortality among men with type 2 diabetes. Circula￾tion 2003;107:2435–2439.

191. Hu G et al. Occupational, commuting, and leisure-time physical activity in relation to total and cardiovascular mortality among Finnish subjects with type 2 diabetes. Circulation 2004;110:666–673.

192. Ong AT, Serruys PW, Mohr FW et al. The SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) study: design, rationale, and run-in phase. Am Heart J 2006;151:1194–1204.

193. American Diabetes Association. Physical activity/exercise and dia￾betes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2003;26(Suppl. 1):S73–S77.

194. Working Party of the international Diabetes Federation (European Region). Hypertension in people with Type 2 diabetes: knowledgebased diabetes-specific guidelines. Diabet Med 2003;20:972–987.

195. Luscher TF, Vanhoutte PM. The Endothelium: Modulator of Cardiovascular Function. Boca Raton, FL: CRC press; 1991.

196. Luscher TF, Noll G. The endothelium in coronary vascular control. Heart Dis 1995;3:1–10.

197. Wever RMF, Luscher TF, Cosentino F, Rabelink TJ. Athelosclerosis and the two faces of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Circulation 1998;97:108–112.

198. Tesfmamariam B, Brown ML, Cohen RA. Elevated glucose impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation by activating protein kinase C. J Clin Invest 1991;87:1643–1648.

199. Williams SB, Goldfine AB, Timimi FK et al. Acute hyperglycaemia attenuates endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans in vivo. Circulation 1998;97:1695–1701.

200. Nishikawa T, Edelstein D, Du XL et al. Normalizing mitochondrial superoxide production blocks three pathways of hyperglycaemic dam￾age. Nature 2000;404:787–790.

201. Creager MA, Luscher TF, Cosentino F, Beckman JA. Diabetes and vascular disease: pathophysiology, cinical consequences, and medical therapy: Part I. Circulation 2003;108:1527–1532.

202. Hink U, Li H, Mollnau H et al. Mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Circ Res 2001;88:E14–E22.

203. Guzik TJ, Mussa S, Gastaldi D et al. Mechanisms of increased vascular superoxide production in human diabetes mellitus: role of NAD(P)H oxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Circulation 2002; 105:1656–1662.

204. Cosentino F, Eto M, De Paolis P et al. High glucose causes upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and alters prostanoid profile in human en￾dothelial cells. Circulation 2003;107:1017.

205. Beckman JS, Koppenol WH. Nitric oxide, superoxide and peroxynitrite: the good, the bad and the ugly. Am J Physiol 1996;271: C1424–C1437.

206. Van der Loo B, Labugger R, Skepper JN et al. Enhanced peroxynitrite formation is associated with vascular aging. J Exp Med 2000;192:1731–1744.

207. Turko IT, Murad F. Protein nitration in cardiovascular diseases. Pharmacol Rev 2002;54:619–634.

208. Milstien S, Katusic Z. Oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin by peroxynitrite: implications for vascular endothelial function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999;263:681–684.

209. Vlassara H, Fuh H, Donnelly T et al. Advanced glycation endproducts promote adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, ICAM-1) expression and atheroma formation in normal rabbits. Mol Med 1995;1: 447–456.

210. Tan KC, Chow WS, Ai VH et al. Advanced glycation end products and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:1055–1059.

211. Park L, Raman KG, Lee KJ et al. Suppression of accelerated diabetic atherosclerosis by the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products. Nat Med 1998;4:1025–1031.

212. Du XL, Edelstein D, Dimmeler S et al. Hyperglycaemia inhibits endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity by posttranslational modification at the Akt site. J Clin Invest 2001;108:1341–1348.

213. Lin KY, Ito A, Asagami T et al. Impaired nitric oxide synthase pathway in diabetes mellitus: role of asymmetric dimethylarginine and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase. Circulation 2002;106: 987–992.

214. Williams SB, Cusco JA, Roddy MA et al. Impaired nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:567–574.

215. Uzuki LA, Poot M, Gerrity RG et al. Diabetes accelerates smooth muscle accumulation in lesions of atherosclerosis: lack of direct growthpromoting effects of high glucose levels. Diabetes 2001;50: 851–860.

216. Fukumoto H, Naito Z, Asano G et al. Immunohistochemical and morphometric evaluations of coronary atherosclerotic plaques associated with myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus. J Atheroscler Thromb 1998;5:29–35.

217. Bavenholm P, Proudler A, Tornvall P et al. Insulin, intact and split proinsulin, and coronary artery disease in young men. Circulation 1995;92:1422–1429.

218. Adachi H, Hirai Y, Tsuruta M et al. Is insulin resistance or diabetes mellitus associated with stroke? Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2001;51: 215–223.

219. Pimenta W, Korytkowski M, Mitrakou A, Jenssen T, Yki-Jarvinen H, Evron W, Dailey G, Gerich J. Pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction as the primary genetic lesion in NIDDM. JAMA 1995;273:1855–1861.

220. Polonsky KS, Sturis J, Bell GI. Seminars in medicine of the Beth Israel hospital, Boston. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus—a genetically programmed failure of the beta cell to compensate for in￾sulin resistance. N Engl J Med 1996;21:777–783.

221. Weyer C, Bogardus C, Mott DM, Pratley RE. The natural history of insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1999;104:787–794.

222. Weyer C, Tataranni PA, Bogardus C, Pratley RE. Insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction are independent predictors of worsening of glucose tolerance during each stage of type 2 diabetes development. Diabetes Care 2001;24:89–94.

223. Haffner SM, Miettinen H, Stern MP. Are risk factors for conversion to NIDDM similar in high and low risk populations? Diabetologia 1997;40:62–66.

224. Godsland IF, Jeffs JA, Johnston DG. Loss of beta-cell function as fasting glucose increases in the non-diabetic range. Diabetologia 2004;47:1157–1166.

225. Pratley RE, Weyer C. The role of impaired early insulin secretion in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 2001;44: 929–945.

226. Ferrannini E, Gastaldelli A, Miyazaki Y, Matsuda M, Mari A, Defronzo RA. Beta-cell function in subjects spanning the range from normal glucose tolerance to overt diabetes: a new analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:493–500.

227. Yeckel CW, Taksali SE, Dziura J, Weiss R, Burgert TS, Sherwin RS, Tamborlane WV, Caprio S. The normal glucose tolerance continuum in obese youth: evidence for impairment in beta-cell function inde￾pendent of insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90: 747–754. Epub November 2, 2004.

228. Fukushima M, Suzuki H, Seino Y. Insulin secretion capacity in the development from normal glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2004;66(suppl):S37–S43.

229. Yki-Jarvinen H. Glucose toxicity. Endocr Rev 1992;13:415–431.

230. Boden G, Shulman GI. Free fatty acids in obesity and type 2 diabetes: defining their role in the development of insulin resistance and bcell dysfunction. Eur J Clin Invest 2002;32:14–23.

231. Paolisso G, Tagliamonte MR, Rizzo MR, Gualdiero P, Saccomanno F, Gambardella A, Giugliano D, D’Onofrio F, Howard BV. Lowering fatty acids potentiates acute insulin response in first degree relatives of people with type II diabetes. Diabetologia 1998;41:1127–1132.

232. Wallander M, Bartnik M, Efendic S, Hamsten A, Malmberg K, O¨hrvik J, Ryde´n L, Silveira A, Norhammar A. Beta cell dysfunction in patients with acute myocardial infarction but without previously known type 2 diabetes: a report from the GAMI study. Diabetologia 2005;48: 2229–2235.

233. Ting HH, Timimi FK, Boles KS et al. Vitamin C improves endotheliumdependent vasodilation in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1996;97:22–28.

234. Lonn E, Yusuf S, Hoogwerf B et al. Effects of vitamin E on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in high-risk patients with diabetes: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Diabetes Care 2002;25:1919–1927.

235. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20.536 high-risk individuals: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360:7–22.

236. Kelley DE, Simoneau JA. Impaired free fatty acid utilization by skeletal muscle in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 1994;94:253–259.

237. Sniderman AD, Scantlebury T, Cianflone K. Hypertriglyceridemic hyperapob: the unappreciated atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:447–459.

238. Gowri MS, Van der Westhuyzen DR, Bridges SR et al. Decreased protection by HDL from poorly controlled type 2 diabetic subjects against LDL oxidation may be due to abnormal composition of HDL. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:2226–2233.

239. Sniderman A, Thomas D, Marpole D et al. Low density lipoprotein: a metabolic pathway for return of cholesterol to the splanchnic bed. J Clin Invest 1978;61:867–873.

240. Tsai EC, Hirsch IB, Brunzell JD et al. Reduced plasma peroxyl radical trapping capacity and increased susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in poorly controlled IDDM. Diabetes 1994;43:1010–1014.

241. Vinik AI, Erbas T, Park TS et al. Platelet dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2001;24:1476–1485.

242. Assert R, Scherk G, Bumbure A et al. Regulation of protein kinase C by short term hyperglycaemia in human platelets in vivo and in vitro. Diabetologia 2001;44:188–195.

243. Li Y, Woo V, Bose R. Platelet hyperactivity and abnormal Ca(2?) homeostasis in diabetes mellitus. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2001;280: H1480–H1489.

244. Hafer-Macko CE, Ivey FM, Gyure KA et al. Thrombomodulin deficiency in human diabetic nerve microvasculature. Diabetes 2002;51:1957–1963.

245. Ceriello A, Giacomello R, Stel G et al. Hyperglycaemia-induced thrombin formation in diabetes: the possible role of oxidative stress. Diabetes 1995;44:924–928.

246. Ceriello A, Giugliano D, Quatraro A et al. Evidence for a hyperglycaemia-dependent decrease of antithrombin III–thrombin complex formation in humans. Diabetologia 1990;33:163–167.

247. Kario K, Matsuo T, Kobayashi H et al. Activation of tissue factor-in￾duced coagulation and endothelial cell dysfunction in non-insulin￾dependent diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1995;15:1114–1120.

248. Pandolfi A, Cetrullo D, Polishuck R et al. Plasilent myocardial ischeamiasilent myocardial ischeamianogen activator inhibitor type 1 is increased in the arterial wall of type II diabetic subjects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21:1378–1382.

249. Taegtmeyer H. Cardiac metabolism as a target for the treatment of heart failure. Circulation 2004;110:894–896.

250. Rodrigues B, Camm MC, Mcneill GH. Metabolic disturbances in di￾abetic cardiomyopathy. Mol Cell Biochem 1998;180:53–57.

251. Murray AG, Anderson RE, Watson GC, Radda GK, Clarke K. Uncoupling proteins in human heart. Lancet 2004;364:1786–1788

252. Swan GW, Anker SD, Walton C, Godslend EF, Clark AL, Leyva F et al. Insulin resistance in chronic failure: relation to severity and etiology of heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30:527–532.

253. Pogatsa G. Metabolic energy metabolism in diabetes: therapeutic implications. Coron Artery Dis 2001;12(Suppl. 1):S29–S33.

254. Yokoyama I, Monomura S, Ohtake T, Yonekura K, Nishikawa J, Sasaki Y et al. Reduced myocardial flow reserve in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30:1472–1477.

255. Woodfield SL, Lundergan CF, Reiner JS, Greenhouse JS, Thompson MA, Rohrbeck SC et al. Angiographic findings and outcome in diabetic patients treated with thrombolytic therapy for acute myocar￾dial infarction: the GUSTO-I experience. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28:1661–1669.

256. Ziegler D, Gries FA, Spuler M et al. Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy multicenter study group: the epidemiology of diabetic neuropathy. J Diabetes Complications 1992;6:49–57.

257. O’Brien IA, O’Hara JP, Lewin IG et al. The prevalence of autonomic neuropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes: a controlled study based on heart rate variability. Q J Med 1986;61:957–967.

258. A desktop to type 2 diabetes mellitus. European Diabetes Policy Group 1999. Diabetic Med 1999 1999;16:716–730.

259. Vinik AI, Erbas T. Neuropathy. In Ruderman N, Devlin JT, Schneider SH, Kriska A, eds. Handbook of Exercise in Diabetes. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association; 2002. p463–496.

260. Hilsted J, Parving HH, Christensen NJ et al. Hemodynamics in diabetic orthostatic hypotension. J Clin Invest 1981;68:1427–1434.

261. Burgos LG, Ebert TJ, Asiddao C et al. Increased intraoperative cardiovascular morbidity in diabetics with autonomic neuropathy. Anesthesiology 1989;70:591–597.

262. Gerritsen J, Dekker JM, TenVoorde BJ et al. Impaired autonomic function is associated with increased mortality, especially in subjects with diabetes, hypertension, or a history of cardiovascular disease. The Hoorn Study. Diabetes Care 2001;24:1793–1798.

263. Wackers FJT, Joung LH, Inzucchi SE et al. Detection of silent myocardial ischaemia in asymptomatic diabetic subjects. The DIAD study. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1954–1961.

264. Janand-Delenne B, Savin B, Habib G et al. Silent myocardial ischaemia in patients with diabetes. Who to screen. Diabetes Care 1999; 22:1396–1400.

265. Vinik AL, Erbas T. Recognizing and treating diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Cleve Clin J Med 2001;68:928–944.

266. Kahn R, Buse J, Ferrannini E, Stern M. The metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal. Joint statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005;28:2289–2304.

267. Gale EAM. Editorial: the myth of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetologia 2005;10:1873–1875.

268. The DREAM Trial Investigators. Effect of ramipril on the incidence of diabetes. N Engl J Med 2005;355:1551–1562.

269. Grundy SM, Brewer HB Jr, Cleeman JI et al. Definition of metabolic syndrome report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association Conference on scientific issues related to definition. Circulation 2004;109:433–438.

270. Park YW, Zhu S, Palaniappan L, Heshka S, Carnethon MR, Heymsfield SB. The metabolic syndrome: prevalence and associated risk factor findings in the US population from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:427–436.

271. Kereiakes DJ, Willerson JT. Metabolic syndrome epidemic. Circula￾tion 2003;108:1552.

272. Ferrannini E, Haffner SM, Mitchell BD et al. Hyperinsulinaemia: the key feature of a cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome. Diabetologia 1991; 34:416–422.

273. Hanley AJ, Williams K, Stern MP et al. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in relation to the incidence of cardiovascular disease: the San Antonio Heart Study. Diabetes Care 2002;25:1177–1184.

274. Bogardus C, Lillioja S, Mott DM et al. Relationship between degree of obesity and in vivo insulin action in man. Am J Physiol 1985; 248:e286–e291.

275. Ginsberg HN, Huang LS. The insulin resistance syndrome: impact on lipoprotein metabolism and atherothrombosis. J Cardiovasc Risk 2000; 7:325–331.

276. Brunzell JD, Hokanson JE. Dyslipidemia of central obesity and insulin resistance. Diabetes Care 1999;22(Suppl. 3):C10–C13.

277. Khovidhunkit W, Memon RA, Feingold KR et al. Infection and inflammation-induced proatherogenic changes of lipoproteins. J Infect Dis 2000;181(Suppl. 3):S462–S472.

278. Jin W, Marchadier D, Rader DJ. Lipases and HDL metabolism. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2002;13:174–178.

279. Rocchini AP, Key J, Bondie D et al. The effect of weight loss on the sensitivity of blood pressure to sodium in obese adolescents. N Engl J Med 1989;321:580–585.

280. Landsberg L. Insulin-mediated sympathetic stimulation: role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension (or, how insulin affects blood pressure, and why). J Hypertens 2001;19:523–528.

281. Festa A, D’Agostino R Jr, Howard G et al. Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome: the Insulin Resist￾ance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Circulation 2000;102:42–47.

282. Schmidt MI, Duncan BB, Sharrett AR et al. Markers of inflammation and prediction of diabetes mellitus in adults (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study): a cohort study. Lancet 1999;353: 1649–1652.

283. Pradhan AD, Manson JE, Rifai N et al. C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 2001;286: 327–334.

284. Ridker PM, Buring JE, Cook NR et al. C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular events: an 8-year follow-up of 14 719 initially healthy American women. Circulation 2003;107:391–397.

285. Festa A, D’Agostino R Jr, Tracy RP et al. Elevated levels of acute-phase proteins and plasilent myocardial ischeamiasilent myocardial ischeamianogen activator inhibitor-1 predict the development of type 2 diabetes: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes 2002; 51:1131–1137.

286. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent dia￾betes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993;329:977–986.

287. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The absence of a glycaemic threshold for the development of long-term complications: the perspective of the Diabetes Control and Complication Trial. Diabetes 1996;45:1289–1298.

288. Laakso M, Kuusisto J. Epidemiological evidence for the association of hyperglycaemia and atherosclerotic vascular disease in non-insulindependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Med 1996;28:415–418.

289. Standl E, Balletshofer B, Dahl B et al. Predictors of 10 year macrovascular and overall mortality in patients with NIDDM: the Munich Gen￾eral Practitioner Project, Diabetologia 1996;39:1540–1545.

290. Selvin E, Marinopoulos S, Berkenblit G et al. Meta-analysis: glycosylated hemoglobin and cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 2004;141:421–431.

291. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group (UKPDS). Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet 1998;352: 854–865.

292. Nathan DM, Meigs J, Singer DE. The epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: how sweet it is or is it? Lancet 1997;350(Suppl. 1):SI 4–9.

293. Standl E, Schnell O. A new look at the heart in diabetes mellitus: from ailing to failing. Diabetologia 2000;43:1455–1469.

294. Haffner SM, Lehto S, Ronnemaa T et al. Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in non-diabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:229–234.

295. Stratton I, Adler Al, Neil HA et al. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. BMJ 2000;321: 405–412.

296. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Haffner SM et al. Elevated risk of cardiovascular disease prior to clinical diagnoses of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:1129–1134.

297. Khaw KT, Wareham N, Bingham S et al. Association of hemoglobin A 1c with cardiovascular disease and mortality in adults: the European prospective investigation into Cancer in Norfolk. Ann Intern Med 2004; 141:413–420.

298. Alberti KGMM, Balkau B, Standl E et al. Type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome in Europe. Eur Heart J 2005;7(Suppl. D):D1–D26.

299. Alberti KGMM. IDF Consensus on the Metabolic Syndrome: Definition and Treatment. 2005 webcast.

300. Bonora E, Targher G, Formentini F et al. The metabolic syndrome is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease in Type 2 diabetic subjects. Prospective data from the Verona diabetes complica￾tions study. Diabetic Med 2002;21:52–58.

301. Pastors JG, Warshaw H, Daly H et al. The evidence for the effectiveness of medical nutrition therapy in diabetes management. Diabetes Care 2002;25: 608–613.

302. Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Wasserman DH et al. Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27: 2518–39.

303. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group: Response of fasting plasma glucose to diet therapy in newly presenting type II diabetic patients (UKPDS 7) Metabolism 1990;39: 905–912.

304. NICE. Technology Appraisal 60. Guidance on the use of patienteducation models for diabetes. London, National Institute for Clinical Excellence, 2003.

305. Gary TL, Genkinger JM, Gualler E et al. Meta–analysis of randomized educational and behavorial interventions in type 2 diabetes. The Diabetes Educator 2003;29:488–501.

306. Laaksonen DE, Lindstrom J, Lakka TA et al. Physical activity in the prevention of type 2 diabetes: the Finnish diabetes prevention study. Diabetes 2005;54:158–165.

307. Diabetes Prevention Research Group. Impact of intensive life style and metformin therapy on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Diabetes Prevention Programme. Diabetes Care 2005;28:888–894.

308. Franz MJ, Bantle JP, Beebe CA et al. Evidence based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. Diabetes Care 2002;25: 148–298.

309. Gaede P, Vedel P, Larsen N et al. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2003;348:383–393.

310. Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee. Canadian Diabetes Association 2003 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada. Can J Diabet 2003;27(Suppl. 2):1–140. http://www.

311. Sarol JN, Nicodemus NA, Tan KM et al. Self-monitoring of blood glucose as part of a multi-component therapy among non-insulin requiring type 2 diabetes patients: a meta-analyses (1966–2004) Curr Med Res Opin 2005;21:173–183.

312. Welschen LMC, Bloemendal E, Nijpels G et al. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes who are not using insulin: a systematic review. Diabetes Care 2005;28:1510–1517.

313. Monnier L, Lapinski H, Colette C Contributions of fasting and postprandial plasma glucose increments to the overall diurnal hyperglycemia of type 2 diabetic patients: variations with increasing levels of HbA(1c). Diabetes Care 2003;26:881–885.

314. Rihl J, Biermann E, Standl E. Insulinresistenz and Typ 2-Diabetes: Die IRIS-Studie. Diabetes Stoffwechsel 2002;11:150–158.

315. Okkubo Y, Kishikawa H, Araki E et al. Intensive insulin therapy prevents the progression of diabetic microvascular complications in Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized prospective 6-year study. Diabet Res Clin Pract 1995; 28:103–117.

316. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study Research Group. Intensive diabetes treatment and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2005;353: 2643–2653.

317. Temelkova-Kurktschiev TS, Koehler C, Henkel E et al. Post-challenge plasma glucose and glycaemic spikes are more strongly associated with atherosclerosis than fasting glucose or HbA1c level. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1830–1834.

318. The DREAM Trial Investigators. Effect of rosiglitazone on the frequency of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006;68:1096–1105.

319. Reference taken out at proof stage.

320. Dormandy JA, Charbonnel B, Eckland DJ et al. Secondary prevention of macrovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes in the PROactive Study (PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366:1279–1289.

321. Fava S, Aquilina O, Azzopardi J et al. The prognostic value of blood glucose in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction. Diabet Med 1996;13:80–83.

322. Norhammar AM, Ryde´n L, Malmberg K. Admission plasma glucose, independent risk factor for long-term prognosis after myocardial infarction even in nondiabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1827–1831.

323. Malmberg K, Norhammar A, Wedel H et al. Glycometabolic state at admission: important risk marker of mortality in conventionally treated patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction: long-term results from the Diabetes and Insulin-Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction (DIGAMI) Study. Circulation 1999;25:2626–2632.

324. Otter W, Kleybrink S, Doering W et al. Hospital outcome of acute myocardial infarction in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 2004;21:183–187.

325. Malmberg K, Ryde´n L, Efendic S et al. Randomized trial of insulinglucose infusion followed by subcutaneous insulin treatment in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction (DIGAMI) study: effects on mortality at 1 year. Am Coll Cardiol 1995;26:57–65.

326. Malmberg, Ryde`n L, Wedel H et al. Intense metabolic control by means of insulin in patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction (DIGAMI 2): effects on mortality and morbidity. Eur Heart J 2005;26:650–661.

327. Schnell O, Doering W, Scha¨fer O et al. Intensification of therapeutic approaches reduces mortality in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction. The Munich Registry. Diabetes Care 2004;27: 455–460.

328. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in dia￾betes. Diabetes Care 2005;28(Suppl. 1):S4–S36.

329. Ha¨ring HU, Joost HG, Laube H et al. Antihyperglyka¨mische Therapie des Diabetes mellitus Typ 2. In: Scherbaum WA, Landgraf R, eds. Evidenzbasierte Diabetes-Leitlinie DDG. Diabetes und Stoffwechsel 2003;12(Suppl. 2). (up￾dated 2004).

330. Turner RC, Cull CA, Frighi V et al. UKPDS 49. Glycaemic control with diet, sulphonylurea, metformin and insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: progressive requirement for multiple therapies. JAMA 1999;281:2005–2012.

331. Standl E, Fu¨chtenbusch M. The role of oral antidiabetic agents: why and when to use an early-phase insulin secretion agent in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 2003;46(Suppl. 1):M30–M36.

332. Van de Laar FA, Lucassen PL, Akkermans RP et al. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for patients with type 2 diabetes: results from a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2005;28: 154–163.

333. Fu¨chtenbusch M, Standl E, Schatz H. Clinical efficacy of new thiazolidindiones and glinides in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocr Diab 2000;108:151–163

334. Yki-Ja¨rvinen H. Comparison of insulin regimes for patients with type 2 diabetes. Curr Opin Endoc Diabet 2000;7:175–183.

335. Stamler J, Vaccaro O, Neaton JD, Wentworth D, for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group. Diabetes, other risk factors and 12 year cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Diabetes Care 1993;16:434–444.

336. Turner RC, Millns H, Neil HAW et al, for the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Risk factors for coronary artery disease in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: United Kingdom prospective diabetes study (UKPDS:23). BMJ 1998;316: 823–828.

337. Howard BV, Robbins DC, Sievers ML et al. LDL cholesterol as a strong risk predictor of coronary heart disease in diabetic individuals with insulin resistance and low LDL. The Strong Heart Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:830–835.

338. Austin MA, Hokanson JE, Edwards KL. Plasma triglyceride is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a metaanalysis of population-based prospective studies. J Cardiovasc Risk 1996;3:213–219.

339. Lehto S, Ronnemaa T, Haffner SM et al. Dyslipidaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia predict coronary heart disease events in middleaged patients with NIDDM Diabetolo. Diabetes 1997;46: 1354–1359.

340. Lehto S, Ronnemaa T, Pyorala K et al. Cardiovascular risk factors clustering with endogenous hyperinsulinaemia predict death from coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2000;43:148–155.

341. Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group (4S). Randomized trial of cholesterol-lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study. Lancet 1994;344:1383–1389.

342. Pyorala K, Pedersen TR, Kjekshus J et al. Cholesterol lowering with simvastatin improves prognosis of diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. A subgroup analysis of the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Diabetes Care 1997;20:614–620.

343. Haffner SM, Alexander CM, Cook TJ et al. Reduced coronary events in simvastatin-treated patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose levels. Subgroup analysis in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study. Arch Int Med 1999;159: 2661–2667.

344. Heart Protection Study Collaboration Group. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol-lowering in 5963 people with diabetes: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003;361: 2005–2016.

345. Cannon CP, Braunwald E, McCabe CH et al., for the Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 22 Investigators. Intensive versus moderate lipidlowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 2004;350:1495–1504.

346. LaRosa JC, Grundy SM, Waters DD et al., for the Treating to New Targets (TNT) Investigators. Intensive lipid lowering with atorvastatin in patients with stable coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2005;352: 1424–1435.

347. De Backer G, Ambrosioni E, Borch-Johnsen K et al. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Third Joint Task Force of European and other societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical practice. Executive Summary. Eur Heart J 2003;24:1601–1610.

348. Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Merz CNB et al., for the Coordinating Committee of the National Cholesterol Education Programme. Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Panel III Guidelines. Circulation 2004;110:227–239.

349. Sever PS, Dahlof B, Poulter NR et al., for the ASCOT Investigators. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average choles￾terol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2003;361:1149–1158.

350. Colhoun HM, Betteridge DJ, Durrington PN et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with atorvastatin in type 2 diabetes in the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS): multicen￾tre randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004;364: 685–696.

351. Kharlip J, Naglieri R, Mitchell BD, Ryan KA, Donner TW. Screening for silent coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes: clinical application of American Diabetes Association guidelines. Diabetes Care 2006;29:692–694.

352. Koskinen P, Mantarri M, Manninen V et al. Coronary heart disease incidence in NIDDM patients in the Helsinki Heart Study. Diabetes Care 1992;15:820–825.

353. Rubins HB, Robins SJ, Collins D et al. Gemfibrozil for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in men with low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. N Engl J Med 1999;241:410–418.

354. Rubins HB, Robins SJ, Collins D et al. Diabetes, plasma insulin and cardiovascular disease. Subgroup analysis from the Department of Veterans Affairs High Density Lipoprotein Intervention Trial (VA-HIT). Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2597–2604.

355. FIELD Study Investigators. Effects of long-term fenofibrate therapy on cardiovascular events in 9795 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the FIELD study): randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366:1849–1861.

356. Salomaa VV, Strandberg TE, Vanhanen H, Naukkarinen V, Sarna S, Miettinen TA. Glucose tolerance and blood pressure: long term follow up in middle aged men. BMJ 1991;302:493–496.

357. Teuscher A, Egger M, Herman JB. Diabetes and hypertension. Blood pressure in clinical diabetic patients and a control population. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:1942–1945.

358. Baba T, Neugebauer S, Watanabe T. Diabetic nephropathy. Its relationship to hypertension and means of pharmacological intervention. Drugs 1997;54:197–234.

359. Stamler J, Vaccaro O, Neaton JD, Wentworth D. Diabetes, other risk factors, and 12-yr cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Diabetes Care 1993;16: 434–444.

360. Brancati FL, Whelton PK, Randall BL, Neaton JD, Stamler J, Klag MJ. Risk of end-stage renal disease in diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study of men screened for MRFIT: Multiple Risk Factor Inter￾vention Trial. JAMA 1997;278:2069–2074.

361. Assman G, Cullen P, Schulte H. Simple scoring scheme for calculating the risk of acute coronary events based on the 10-year followup of the prospective cardiovascular Munster (PROCAM) study. Circulation 2002;105:310–315.

362. Shehadeh A, Regan TJ. Cardiac consequences of diabetes mellitus. Clin Cardiol 1995;18:301–305.

363. Leese GP, Vora JP. The management of hypertension in diabetes: with special reference to diabetic kidney disease. Diabet Med 1996;13: 401–410.

364. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. BMJ 1998;317:703–713.

365. Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG et al. Effects of intensive blood pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) trial. Lancet 1998;351:1755–1762.

366. Nilsson PM, Gudbjo¨rnsdottir S, Eliasson B, Cederholm J, for the Steering Committee of the National Diabetes Register in Sweden. Hypertension in diabetes: trends in clinical control in repeated national surveys from Sweden 1996–99. J Hum Hypertens 2003;17: 37–44.

367. Anselmino M, Bartnik M, Malmberg K, Ryde´n L on behalf of the Euro Heart Survey Investigators. Management of coronary artery disease in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Acute management reasonable but secondary prevention unacceptably poor: a report from the Euro Heart Survey on diabetes and the heart. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehab February 2007, in press. doi 10.1097/ 01.hjr.0000199496.23838.83.

368. Curb D, Pressel SL, Cutler JA, Savage PJ, Applegate WB, Black H, Camel B, Davis BR, Frost PH, Gonzalez N et al. Effect of diureticbased antihypertensive treatment on cardiovascular disease risk in older diabetic patients with isolated systolic hypertension. JAMA 1996;276: 1886–1892.

369. Lievre M, Gueyffier F, Ekbom T et al. INDANA Steering Committee. Efficacy of diuretics and -blockers in diabetic hypertensive patients: results from a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2000;23(Suppl. 2): B65–B71.

370. Tuomilehto J, Rastenyte D, Birkenhager WH et al. Systolic Hypertension in Europe Trial Investigators. Effects of calcium-channel block￾ade in older patients with diabetes and systolic hypertension. N Engl J Med 1999;340:677–684.

371. Wang JG, Staessen JA, Gong L, Liu L, Systolic Hypertension in China (Syst-China) Collaborative Group. Chinese trial on isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:211–220.

372. Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J, Bosch J, Davies R, Dagenais G, Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2000;342:145–153.

373. Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study Investigators. Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study and MI￾CROHOPE substudy. Lancet 2000;355:253–259.

374. Estacio RO, Jeffers BW, Hiatt WR, Biggerstaff SL, Gifford N, Schrier RW. The effect of nisoldipine as compared with enalapril on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes and hypertension. N Engl J Med 1998;338:645–652.

375. Tatti P, Pahor M, Byington RP et al. Outcome results of the Fosinopril versus Amlodipine Cardiovascular Events Randomized Trial (FACET) in patients with hypertension and NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1998;21:597–603.

376. Niskanen L, Hedner T, Hansson L, Lanke J, Niklason A. Reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive diabetic patients on first-line therapy with an ACE inhibitor compared with a diuretic/ beta-blocker-based treatment regimen: a subanalysis of the Captopril Prevention Project. Diabetes Care 2001;24:2091–2096.

377. Ruggenenti P, Fassi A, Ilieva AP, Bruno S, Iliev IP, Brusegan Bergamo Nephrologic Diabetes Complications Trial (BENEDICT) Investigators. Preventing microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1941–1951.

378. Lindholm LH, Ibsen H, Dahlo¨f B, Devereux RB, Beevers G, de Faire U et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hyper￾tension study (LIFE): a randomized trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002;359:1004–1010.

379. Hansson L, Lindholm LH, Niskanen L et al. Effect of angiotensinconverting-enzyme inhibition compared with conventional therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertension: the Captopril Prevention Project (CAPPP) randomized trial. Lancet 1999; 353:611–616.

380. The ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs. diuretic. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA 2002;288:2981–2997.

381. Whelton PK, Barzilay J, Cushman WC et al. Clinical outcomes in antihypertensive treatment of type 2 diabetes, impaired fasting glucose concentration and normoglycaemia: Anti-Hypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). Arch Intern Med 2005;165:1401–1409.

382. Guidelines Committee. 2003 European Society of Hypertension— European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. J Hypertens 2003;21:1011–1053.

For citation:

Ryden L., Standl E., Bartnik M., Van den Berghe G., Betteridge J., de Boer M., Cosentino F., Jonsson B., Laakso M., Malmberg K., Priori S., Ostergren J., Tuomilehto J., Thrainsdottir I. GUIDELINES ON DIABETES, PRE-DIABETES, AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES. Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology. 2007;3(4):71-99. (In Russ.)

Views: 1540

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 1819-6446 (Print)
ISSN 2225-3653 (Online)