Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology

Advanced search


Full Text:


Magnesium is a macronutrient that is needed for normal body functions. Magnesium deficiency resulting from the influence of exogenous and endogenous factors, is diagnosed by clinical manifestations, resembling the known disease. Magnesium deficiency corrected with the magnesium therapy. Studies show the effectiveness of magnesium orotate for many cardiovascular diseases.

About the Author

E. L. Trisvetova
Belarusian State Medical University


1. Swaminathan R. Magnesium Metabolism and its Disorders. Clin Biochem Rev 2003;24 (2):47–66.

2. Saris N.E., Mervaala E., Karppanen H., Khawaja J.A., Lewenstam A. Magnesium. An update on physiological, clinical and analytical aspects. Clin Chim Acta 2000;294:1–26.

3. Ryan M.F ., Barbour H. Magnesium measurement in routine clinical practice. Ann Clin Biochem 1998;35:449–459.

4. Rude R.K. Magnesium metabolism and deficiency. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1993; 22: 377–395.

5. Wu A. Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests. 4th Ed. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2006

6. Bardicef M., Bardicef O., Sorokin Y ., et al. Extracellular and intra-cellular magnesium depletion in pregnancy and gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;172:1009–1013.

7. Gonzalez-Revalderia J., Garcia-Bermejo S., Menchen-Herreros A., Fernandez-Rodriguez E. Biological variation of Zn, Cu, and Mg in serum of healthy subjects. Clin Chem 1990;36:2140–2141.

8. Whang R., Oei T.O., Aikawa J.K., et al. Predictors of clinical hypomagnesemia. Hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hyponatremia, and hypocalcemia. Arch Intern Med 1984; 4: 794–1796.

9. Fox C., Ramsoomair D., Carter C. Magnesium: its proven and potential clinical significance. South Med J 2001;94:1195–1201.

10. Wong E.T., Rude R.K., Singer F .R., Shaw S.T. A high prevalence of hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesemia in hospitalised patients.Am J Clin Pathol 1983;79:348–355.

11. Hayes J.P ., Ryan M.F ., Brazil N. et al. Serum hypomagnesaemia in an elderly day-hospital population. Ir Med J 1989;82:117–121.

12. Naderi A.S.A., Reilly R. F . Jr . Hereditary etiologies of hypomagnesemia. Nature Clinical Practice Nephrology 2008;4:80–89.

13. Konrad M., Weber S. Recent advances in molecular genetics of hereditary magnesium-losing disorders. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003;14:249–260.

14. Schlingmann K.P ., Konrad M., Seyberth H.W. Genetics of hereditary disorders of magnesium homeostasis. Pediatr Nephrol 2004;19:13–25.

15. Kadurina TI, Gorbunova, VN. Connective tissue dysplasia. St. Petersburg: ELBI-SPb; 2009. Russian (Кадурина Т . И., Г орбунова В. Н. Дисплазия соединительной ткани. СПб: ЭЛБИ-СПб; 2009).

16. National guidelines for hereditary disorders of connective tissue. Kardiovaskuljarnaja terapija i profilaktika 2009; 8(6) suppl 5: 1–24. Russian (Национальные рекомендации по наследственным нарушениям соединительной ткани. Кардиоваскулярная терапия и профилактика 2009; 8(6) Приложение 5: 1–24).

17. Fawcett W.J., Haxby E.J., Male D.A. Magnesium: physiology and pharmacology. Br J Anaesth 1999;83:302–320.

18. Ryzen E., Rude R.K. Low intracellular magnesium in patients with acute pancreatitis and hypocalcemia. West J Med 1990;152:145–148.

19. Satur C.M., Stubington S.R., Jennings A., et al. Magnesium flux during and after open heart operations in children. Ann Thorac Surg 1995;59:921–927.

20. al-Ghamdi S.M., Cameron E.C., Sut ton R.A. Magnesium deficiency: pathophysiologic and clinical overview. Am J Kidney Dis 1994;24:737–752.

21. Torralbo A., Portoles .J, Perez A.J., Barrientos A. Hypomagnesemic hypocalcemia in chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 1993;21:167–171.

22. Tattersall J.E., Dick C., Doyle S., et al. Alkalosis and hypomagnesaemia: unwanted effects of a low-calcium CAPD solution. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1995;10:258–262.

23. Elin R.J., Hosseini J.M., Fitzpatrick L., et al. Blood magnesium status of patients with parathyroid disease. Magnes Tr Ele 1990;9:119–123.

24. Chaudhary D.P ., Sharma R., Bansal D.D . Implications of magnesium deficiency in type 2 diabetes: a review. Biol Trace Elem Res 2010;134(2):119–29.

25. Tosiello L. Hypomagnesemia and diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:1143–1148.

26. de Valk V.H. Magnesium in diabetes mellitus. Neth J Med 1999;54:139–146.

27. Dorup I. Magnesium and potassium deficiency. Its diagnosis, occurrence and treatment in diuretic therapy and its consequences for growth, protein synthesis and growth factors. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 1994;618:1–55.

28. Markmann M., Rothman R., Reichman B., et al. Persistent hypomagnesemia following cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with ovarian cancer . J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1991;117:89–90.

29. Koch N.P ., Hadj-Aissa A., Schell M., et al. Long-term nephrotoxicity of cisplatin, ifosfamide, and methotrexate in osteosarcoma. Pediatr Nephro 1998;12:572–575.

30. Elliott C, Newman N, Madan A. Gentamicin effects on urinary electrolyte excretion in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000;67:16–21.

31. Knutsen R., Bohmer T., Falch J. Intravenous theophylline-induced excretion of calcium, magnesium and sodium in patients with recurrent asthmatic attacks. Scand J Clin Lab Inves 1994;54:119–125.

32. Haffner C.A., Kendall M.J. Metabolic effects of beta 2-agonists. J Clin Pharm Ther 1992;17:155–164.

33. Nijenhuis T ., Hoenderop J.G., Bindels R.J. Downregulation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport proteins in the kidney explains tacrolimus (FK506)-induced hypercalciuria and hypomagnesemia. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15:549–557.

34. Sheen E., Triadafilopoulos G. Adverse effects of long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy. Digestive diseases and sciences 2011;56(4):931–950.

35. Huang C.L., Kuo E. Mechanism of Hypokalemia in Magnesium Deficiency. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;18(10):2649–2652.

36. Fox C., Ramsoomair D., Carter C. Magnesium: its proven and potential clinical significance. South Med J 2001;94:1195–1201.

37. Nadler J.L., Rude R.K. Disorders of magnesium metabolism. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1995;24:623–641.

38. Nozue T ., Kobayashi A., Uemasu F ., et al. Magnesium status, serum HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-1 levels. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1995;20:316–318.

39. Shechter M., Sharir M., Labrador M.J. et al. Oral magnesium therapy improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 2000;102:2353–2358.

40. Liao F ., Folsom A.R., Brancati F .L. Is low magnesium concentration a risk factor for coronary heart disease? The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J 1998;136(3):480–490.

41. Ueshima K. Magnesium and ischemic heart disease: a review of epidemiological, experimental, and clinical evidences. Magnes Res 2005;18(4):275–284.

42. Rutherford P .A, Thomas T .H., Wilkinson R. Increased erythrocyte sodium-lithium counter transport activity in essential hypertension is due to an increased af finity for extracellular sodium. Clin Sci 1990;79:365–369.

43. Shechter M. Does magnesium have a role in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease? Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2003;3(4):231–239.

44. Viskin S. Torsades de Pointes. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 1999;1(2):187–195.

45. Viskin S., Fish R. Prevention of ventricular arrhythmias in the congenital long QT syndrome. Curr Cardiol Rep 2000;2(6):492–497.

46. Tosiello L. Hypomagnesemia and diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:1143–1148.

47. Zabelina V.D. Magnesium and magnesium-containing drugs. With magnesium for life. Consilium-provisorum 2003;3(5): 27–30. Russian (Забелина В.Д. Магний и магнийсодержащие препараты. С магнием по жизни. Consilium-provisorum 2003;3(5): 27–30.

48. Stepura O.B., Ostroumova O.D. Use of oral magnesium preparations for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Russkij Medicinskij Zhurnal 2010;3(18):109–112. Russian (Степура О.Б., Остроумова О.Д. Применение пероральных препаратов магния для лечения сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний. РМЖ 2010;3(18):109–112).

49. Zehender M., Meinertz T ., Faber T ., et al. Antiarrhythmic effects of increasing the daily intake of magnesium and potassium in patients with frequent ventricular arrhythmias. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;29:1028–1034.

50. Davey M.J., Teubner D.A. Randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate in addition to usual care, for rate control in atrial fibrillation. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2005;45:347–353.

51. Davidova C., Yarovoiy C. Preparations of magnesium in the treatment and prevention of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with urological profile. Vrach 2011;(9):44–49. Russian (Давыдова С., Яровой С. Препараты магния в лечении и профилактике суправентрикулярных тахиаритмий у больных урологического профиля. Врач 2011;(9):44–49).

52. Chilov A.M., Galanova A.C., Griasnov D.A. et al. Metabolic syndrome and magnesium deficiency: characteristics of the course and treatment. Vrach 2008;(9):44–48). Russian (Шилов А.М., Г аланова А.С., Г рязнов Д.А. и др. Метаболический синдром и дефицит магния: особенности течения и лечения. Врач 2008;(9):44–48).

53. Martinov A.I., Akatova E.V. The experience of fifteen years of preparations of magnesium in patients with mitral valve prolapse. Kardiologiia 2011;(6):60–65. Russian (Мартынов А.И., Акатова Е.В. Опыт пятнадцатилетнего применения препаратов магния у больных с пролапсом митрального клапана. Кардиология 2011;(6):60–65).

54. Martinov A.I., Akatova E.V., Nikolin O.P ., The effectiveness of the drug "Magnerot®» syndrome with manifestations of vascular disorders, and hemorrhagic syndrome in patients with idiopathic mitral valve prolapse. Consilium medicum, CardioSomatika 2011; 1:13–17. Russian (Мартынов А.И., Акатова Е.В., Николин О.П. Эффективность применения препарата «Магнерот®» при проявлениях синдрома сосудистых нарушений и геморрагического синдрома у больных с идиопатическим пролапсом митрального клапана. CardioСоматика 2011; 1:13–17.

55. Pak L.C. The value of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of patients with mitral valve prolapse. Trudniy pacient 2007;5(5): 13–6. Russian (Пак Л.С. Значение магния в патогенезе и лечении больных пролапсом митрального клапана. Трудный пациент 2007;5(5): 13–6.

For citation:

Trisvetova E.L. MAGNESIUM IN CLINICAL PRACTICE. Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology. 2012;8(4):545-553. (In Russ.)

Views: 526

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 1819-6446 (Print)
ISSN 2225-3653 (Online)