Preview

Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology

Advanced search

AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY, AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION AND EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF CARDIOLOGY GUIDELINES (2006) FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION (ENDING)

https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2007-3-3-84-111

Full Text:

Abstract

A report of the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for practice guidelines.

About the Authors

V. Fuster

Russian Federation


L.E. Ryden

Russian Federation


D.S. Cannom

Russian Federation


H.J. Crijns

Russian Federation


A.B. Curtis

Russian Federation


K.A. Ellenbogen

Russian Federation


J.L. Halperin

Russian Federation


J.Y. Le Heuzey

Russian Federation


G.N. Kay

Russian Federation


J.E. Lowe

Russian Federation


S.B. Olsson

Russian Federation


E.N. Prystowsky

Russian Federation


J.L. Tamargo

Russian Federation


S. Wann

Russian Federation


References

1. Bellet S. Clinical Disorders of the Heart Beat. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1971.

2. Prystowsky EN, Katz AM. Atrial Fibrillation. In: Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1998:1661.

3. Knight BP, Michaud GF, Strickberger SA, et al. Electrocardiographic differentiation of atrial flutter from atrial fibrillation by physicians. J Electrocardiol 1999;32:315–9.

4. Allessie MA, Konings KT, Kirchhof CJ. Mapping of atrial fibrillation. In: Olsson SB, Allessie MA, Campbell RW, editors. Atrial Fibrillation: Mechanisms and Therapeu￾tic Strategies. Armonk, NY: Futura,1994:37–49.

5. Kopecky SL, Gersh BJ, McGoon MD, et al. The natural history of lone atrial fibrillation. A population-based study over three decades. N Engl J Med 1987;317:669–74.

6. Deleted in proof.

7. Friberg J, Buch P, Scharling H, et al. Rising rates of hospital admissions for atrial fibrillation. Epidemiology 2003;14:666–72.

8. Le Heuzey JY, Paziaud O, Piot O, et al. Cost of care distribution in atrial fibrillation patients: the COCAF study. Am Heart J 2004;147:121–6.

9. Go AS, Hylek EM, Phillips KA, et al. Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the AnTicoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study. JAMA 2001;285:2370–5.

10. Furberg CD, Psaty BM, Manolio TA, et al. Prevalence of atrial fibrillation in elderly subjects (the Cardiovascular Health Study). Am J Cardiol 1994;74:236–41.

11. Friberg J, Scharling H, Gadsboll N, et al. Sex-specific increase in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (The Copenhagen City Heart Study). Am J Cardiol 2003;92:1419–23.

12. Levy S, Maarek M, Coumel P, et al. Characterization of different subsets of atrial fibrillation in general practice in France: the ALFA study. The College of French Cardiologists. Circulation 1999;99:3028–35.

13. Psaty BM, Manolio TA, Kuller LH, et al. Incidence of and risk factors for atrial fib￾rillation in older adults. Circulation 1997;96:2455–61.

14. Crijns HJ, Tjeerdsma G, De Kam PJ, et al. Prognostic value of the presence and development of atrial fibrillation in patients with advanced chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J 2000;21:1238–45.

15. Madrid AH, Bueno MG, Rebollo JM, et al. Use of irbesartan to maintain sinus rhythm in patients with long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation: a prospective and randomized study. Circulation 2002; 106: 331–6.

16. Wachtell K, Lehto M, Gerdts E, et al. Angiotensin II receptor blockade reduces new-onset atrial fibrillation and subsequent stroke compared to atenolol: the Losartan Intervention For End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:712–9.

17. Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. Risk factors for stroke and efficacy of antithrom￾botic therapy in atrial fibrillation. Analysis of pooled data from five randomized controlled trials [published erratum appears in Arch Intern Med 1994;154:2254]. Arch Intern Med 1994; 154: 1449–57.

18. Stewart S, Hart CL, Hole DJ, et al. A population-based study of the long-term risks associated with atrial fibrillation: 20-year follow-up of the Renfrew/Paisley study. Am J Med 2002;113:359–64.

19. Krahn AD, Manfreda J, Tate RB, et al. The natural history of atrial fibrillation: incidence, risk factors, and prognosis in the Manitoba Follow-Up Study. Am J Med 1995;98:476–84.

20. Poole-Wilson PA, Swedberg K, Cleland JG, et al. Comparison of carvedilol and metoprolol on clinical outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure in the Carvedilol Or Metoprolol European Trial (COMET): randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003;362:7–13.

21. Maggioni AP, Latini R, Carson PE, et al. Valsartan reduces the incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure: results from the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT). Am Heart J 2005; 149: 548–57.

22. Wang TJ, Larson MG, Levy D, et al. Temporal relations of atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure and their joint influence on mortality: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2003;107:2920–5.

23. Wolf PA, Abbott RD, Kannel WB. Atrial fibrillation as an independent risk factor for stroke: the Framingham Study. Stroke 1991;22:983–8.

24. Hart RG, Halperin JL. Atrial fibrillation and thromboembolism: a decade of progress in stroke prevention. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131: 688–95.

25. Wolf PA, Dawber TR, Thomas HE Jr, et al. Epidemiologic assessment of chronic atrial fibrillation and risk of stroke: the Framingham study. Neurology 1978;28:973–7.

26. Bharti S, Lev M. Histology of the normal and diseased atrium. In: Fall RH, Podrid PJ, editors. Atrial Fibrillation: Mechanism and Management. New York: Raven Press, 1992:15–39.

27. Allessie M, Ausma J, Schotten U. Electrical, contractile and structural remodeling during atrial fibrillation. Cardiovasc Res 2002; 54: 230–46.

28. Aime-Sempe C, Folliguet T, Rucker-Martin C, et al. Myocardial cell death in fibrillating and dilated human right atria. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;34:1577–86.

29. Polontchouk L, Haefliger JA, Ebelt B, et al. Effects of chronic atrial fibrillation on gap junction distribution in human and rat atria. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38: 883–91.

30. Mary-Rabine L, Albert A, Pham TD, et al. The relationship of human atrial cellular electrophysiology to clinical function and ultrastructure. Circ Res 1983;52:188–99.

31. Bailey GW, Braniff BA, Hancock EW, et al. Relation of left atrial pathology to atrial fibrillation in mitral valvular disease. Ann Intern Med 1968; 69:13–20.

32. Pokharel S, van Geel PP, Sharma UC, et al. Increased myocardial collagen content in transgenic rats overexpressing cardiac angiotensinconverting enzyme is related to enhanced breakdown of N-acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro and increased phosphorylation of Smad2/3. Circulation 2004;110:3129–35.

33. Goette A, Staack T, Rocken C, et al. Increased expression of extracellular signal￾regulated kinase and angiotensin-converting enzyme in human atria during atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 35:1669–77.

34. Kumagai K, Nakashima H, Urata H, et al. Effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist on electrical and structural remodeling in atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:2197–204.

35. Verheule S, Wilson E, Everett T, et al. Alterations in atrial electrophysiology and tissue structure in a canine model of chronic atrial dilatation due to mitral regurgitation. Circulation 2003;107:2615–22.

36. Sanders P, Morton JB, Davidson NC, et al. Electrical remodeling of the atria in congestive heart failure: electrophysiological and electroanatomic mapping in humans. Circulation 2003;108:1461–8.

37. Jais P, Haissaguerre M, Shah DC, et al. A focal source of atrial fibrillation treated by discrete radiofrequency ablation. Circulation 1997; 95: 572–6.

38. Haissaguerre M, Jais P, Shah DC, et al. Spontaneous initiation of atrial fibrillation by ectopic beats originating in the pulmonary veins. N Engl J Med 1998;339:659–66.

39. Schwartzman D, Bazaz R, Nosbisch J. Common left pulmonary vein: a consistent source of arrhythmogenic atrial ectopy. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2004;15:560–6.

40. Hsu LF, Jais P, Keane D, et al. Atrial fibrillation originating from persistent left su￾perior vena cava. Circulation 2004;109:828–32.

41. Chen SA, Tai CT, Yu WC, et al. Right atrial focal atrial fibrillation: electrophysiologic characteristics and radiofrequency catheter ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1999;10:328–35. 42. Jais P, Hocini M, Macle L, et al. Distinctive electrophysiological properties of pulmonary veins in patients with atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2002;106:2479–85.

42. Shah D, Haissaguerre M, Jais P, et al. Nonpulmonary vein foci: do they exist? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2003;26:1631–5.

43. Ortiz J, Niwano S, Abe H, et al. Mapping the conversion of atrial flutter to atrial fibrillation and atrial fibrillation to atrial flutter: insights into mechanism. Circ Res 1994;74:882–894.

44. Konings KT, Kirchof CJ, Smeets JR, et al. High-density mapping of electrically induced atrial fibrillation in humans. Circulation 1994; 89:1665–80.

45. Moe GK, Abildskov JA. Atrial fibrillation as a self sustaining arrhythmia inde￾pendent of focal discharge. Am Heart J 1959;58:59–70.

46. Cox JL, Canavan TE, Schuessler RB, et al. The surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. II. Intraoperative electrophysiologic mapping and description of the electrophysiologic basis of atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1991;101:406–26.

47. a. Mandapati R, Skanes A, Chen J, et al. Stable microreentrant sources as a mech￾anism of atrial fibrillation in the isolated sheep heart. Circulation 2000;101:194–99.

48. b. Lazar S, Dixit S, Marchlinski FE, et al. Presence of left-to-right atrial frequency gradient in paroxysmal but not persistent atrial fibrillation in humans. Circulation 2004;110:3181–86.

49. c. Sanders P, Berenfeld O, Hocini M, et al. Spectral analysis identifies sites of highfrequency activity maintaining atrial fibrillation in humans. Circulation 2005;112:789–97.

50. Nakao K, Seto S, Ueyama C, et al. Extended distribution of prolonged and fractionated right atrial electrograms predicts development of chronic atrial fibrillation in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2002;13:996–1002.

51. Akyurek O, Sayin T, Dincer I, et al. Lengthening of intraatrial conduction time in atrial fibrillation and its relation with early recurrence of atrial fibrillation. Jpn Heart J 2001;42:575–84.

52. Yamada T, Fukunami M, Shimonagata T, et al. Prediction of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with congestive heart failure: a prospective study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:405–13.

53. Ricard P, Levy S, Trigano J, et al. Prospective assessment of the minimum energy needed for external electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:815–6.

54. Wijffels MC, Kirchhof CJ, Dorland R, et al. Atrial fibrillation begets atrial fibrillation. A study in awake chronically instrumented goats. Circulation 1995;92: 1954–68.

55. Nattel S. New ideas about atrial fibrillation 50 years on. Nature 2002;415: 219–26.

56. Anne W, Willems R, Van der MN, et al. Atrial fibrillation after radiofrequency ablation of atrial flutter: preventive effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and diuretics. Heart 2004;90: 1025–30.

57. Healey JS, Baranchuk A, Crystal E, et al. Prevention of atrial fibrillation with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45: 1832–9.

58. Pedersen OD, Bagger H, Kober L, et al. Trandolapril reduces the incidence of atrial fibrillation after acute myocardial infarction in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation 1999;100:376–80.

59. Prystowsky EN. Atrioventricular node reentry: physiology and radiofrequency ablation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1997;20:552–71.

60. Page RL, Wharton JM, Prystowsky EN. Effect of continuous vagal enhancement on concealed conduction and refractoriness within the atrioventricular node. Am J Cardiol 1996;77:260–5.

61. Moe GK, Abildskov JA. Observations on the ventricular dysrhythmia associated with atrial fibrillation in the dog heart. Circ Res 1964;4:447–60.

62. Van Den Berg MP, Crijns HJ, Haaksma J, et al. Analysis of vagal effects on ventricular rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation. Clin Sci (Colch) 1994;86:531–5.

63. Klein GJ, Bashore TM, Sellers TD, et al. Ventricular fibrillation in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. N Engl J Med 1979;301:1080–5.

64. Prystowsky EN, Benson DW Jr, Fuster V, et al. Management of patients with atrial fibrillation. A statement for healthcare professionals. From the Subcommittee on Electrocardiography and Electrophysiology, American Heart Association. Circulation 1996;93:1262–77.

65. Brookes CI, White PA, Staples M, et al. Myocardial contractility is not constant during spontaneous atrial fibrillation in patients. Circulation 1998;98:1762–8.

66. Sanfilippo AJ, Abascal VM, Sheehan M, et al. Atrial enlargement as a conse￾quence of atrial fibrillation. A prospective echocardiographic study. Circulation 1990;82:792–7.

67. Gosselink AT, Crijns HJ, Hamer HP, et al. Changes in left and right atrial size after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: role of mitral valve disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;22:1666–72.

68. Manning WJ, Silverman DI, Katz SE, et al. Impaired left atrial mechanical function after cardioversion: relation to the duration of atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;23:1535–40.

69. Van Den Berg MP, Tuinenburg AE, van Veldhuisen DJ, et al. Cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in the setting of mild to moderate heart failure. Int J Cardiol 1998;63:63–70.

70. Packer DL, Bardy GH, Worley SJ, et al. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy: a reversible form of left ventricular dysfunction. Am J Cardiol 1986;57:563–70.

71. Shinbane JS, Wood MA, Jensen DN, et al. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy: a review of animal models and clinical studies. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;29:709–15.

72. Halperin JL, Hart RG. Atrial fibrillation and stroke: new ideas, persisting dilemmas. Stroke 1988;19:937–41.

73. Bogousslavsky J, Van Melle G, Regli F, et al. Pathogenesis of anterior circulation stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: the Lausanne Stroke Registry. Neurology 1990;40:1046–50.

74. Miller VT, Rothrock JF, Pearce LA, et al. Ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: effect of aspirin according to stroke mechanism. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. Neurology 1993;43:32–6.

75. Kanter MC, Tegeler CH, Pearce LA, et al. Carotid stenosis in patients with atrial fibrillation. Prevalence, risk factors, and relationship to stroke in the Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Study. Arch Intern Med 1994;154:1372–7.

76. Hart RG, Halperin JL. Atrial fibrillation and stroke: concepts and controversies. Stroke 2001;32:803–8.

77. Aschenberg W, Schluter M, Kremer P, et al. Transesophageal twodimensional echocardiography for the detection of left atrial appendage thrombus. J Am Coll Cardiol 1986;7:163–6.

78. Mugge A, Kuhn H, Nikutta P, et al. Assessment of left atrial appendage function by biplane transesophageal echocardiography in patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation: identification of a subgroup of patients at increased embolic risk. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994; 23: 599–607.

79. Manning WJ, Leeman DE, Gotch PJ, et al. Pulsed Doppler evaluation of atrial mechanical function after electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989;13:617–23.

80. Grimm RA, Stewart WJ, Maloney JD, et al. Impact of electrical cardioversion for atrial fibrillation on left atrial appendage function and spontaneous echo contrast: characterization by simultaneous transesophageal echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;22:1359–66.

81. Chimowitz MI, DeGeorgia MA, Poole RM, et al. Left atrial spontaneous echo contrast is highly associated with previous stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation or mitral stenosis. Stroke 1993; 24: 1015–9.

82. Stoddard MF, Dawkins PR, Prince CR, et al. Left atrial appendage thrombus is not uncommon in patients with acute atrial fibrillation and a recent embolic event: a transesophageal echocardiographic study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995;25:452–9.

83. Manning WJ, Silverman DI, Waksmonski CA, et al. Prevalence of residual left atrial thrombi among patients with acute thromboembolism and newly recognized atrial fibrillation. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:2193–8.

84. Khan IA. Atrial stunning: determinants and cellular mechanisms. Am Heart J 2003;145:787–94.

85. Dunn MI, Marcum JL. Atrial mechanical performance following internal and external cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: its relationship to peripheral embolization and acute cerebrovascular accident. Chest 2002;121:1–3.

86. Berger M, Schweitzer P. Timing of thromboembolic events after electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation or flutter: a retrospective analysis. Am J Cardiol 1998;82:1545–7, A8.

87. Collins LJ, Silverman DI, Douglas PS, et al. Cardioversion of nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. Reduced thromboembolic complications with 4 weeks of precardioversion anticoagulation are related to atrial thrombus resolution. Circulation 1995;92:160–3.

88. Fatkin D, Kelly RP, Feneley MP. Relations between left atrial appendage blood flow velocity, spontaneous echocardiographic contrast and thromboembolic risk in vivo. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;23:961–9.

89. Black IW, Chesterman CN, Hopkins AP, et al. Hematologic correlates of left atrial spontaneous echo contrast and thromboembolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;21:451–7.

90. Yang Y, Grosset DG, Li Q, et al. Identification of echocardiographic ‘smoke’ in a bench model with transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Stroke 2000;31:907–14.

91. Agarwal AK, Venugopalan P. Left atrial spontaneous echo contrast in patients with rheumatic mitral valve stenosis in sinus rhythm: relationship to mitral valve and left atrial measurements. Int J Cardiol 2001;77:63–8.

92. Black IW. Spontaneous echo contrast: where there’s smoke there’s fire. Echocardiography 2000;17:373–82.

93. Sparks PB, Jayaprakash S, Vohra JK, et al. Left atrial ‘stunning’ following radiofrequency catheter ablation of chronic atrial flutter. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;32:468–75.

94. Hart RG, Pearce LA, Miller VT, et al. Cardioembolic vs. noncardioembolic strokes in atrial fibrillation: frequency and effect of antithrombotic agents in the stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation studies. Cerebrovasc Dis 2000;10:39–43.

95. Blackshear JL, Pearce LA, Hart RG, et al. Aortic plaque in atrial fibrillation: prevalence, predictors, and thromboembolic implications. Stroke 1999;30:834–40.

96. Fang MC, Singer DE, Chang Y, et al. Gender differences in the risk of ischemic stroke and peripheral embolism in atrial fibrillation: the An- Ticoagulation and Risk factors In Atrial fibrillation (ATRIA) study. Circulation 2005;112:1687–91.

97. Yoshida M, Nakamura Y, Higashikawa M, Kinoshita M. Predictors of ischemic stroke in non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation. Int J Cardiol 1996;56:61–70.

98. Hart RG, Pearce LA, McBride R, et al. Factors associated with ischemic stroke during aspirin therapy in atrial fibrillation: analysis of 2012 participants in the SPAF 1-2I clinical trials. The Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation (SPAF) Investigators. Stroke 1999;30:1223–9.

99. Stollberger C, Chnupa P, Kronik G, et al. Transesophageal echocardiography to assess embolic risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. ELAT Study Group. Embolism in Left Atrial Thrombi. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:630–8.

100. Tsai LM, Lin LJ, Teng JK, et al. Prevalence and clinical significance of left atrial thrombus in nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. Int J Cardiol 1997; 58:163–9.

101. Rathore SS, Berger AK, Weinfurt KP, et al. Acute myocardial infarction complicated by atrial fibrillation in the elderly: prevalence and outcomes. Circulation 2000;101:969–74.

102. Goldberg RJ, Yarzebski J, Lessard D, et al. Recent trends in the incidence rates of and death rates from atrial fibrillation complicating initial acute myocardial infarction: a community-wide perspective. Am Heart J 2002;143:519–27.

103. Prystowsky EN. Tachycardia-induced-tachycardia: a mechanism of initiation of atrial fibrillation. In: DiMarco JP, Prystowsky EN, editors. Atrial Arrhythmias: State of the Art Armonk, NY: Futura, 1995.

104. Brugada R, Tapscott T, Czernuszewicz GZ, et al. Identification of a genetic locus for familial atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 1997;336:905–11.

105. Frost L, Hune LJ, Vestergaard P. Overweight and obesity as risk factors for atrial fibrillation or flutter: the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study. Am J Med 2005;118:489–95.

106. Wang TJ, Parise H, Levy D, et al. Obesity and the risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation. JAMA 2004;292:2471–7.

107. Fox CS, Parise H, D’Agostino RB Sr, et al. Parental atrial fibrillation as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation in offspring. JAMA 2004; 291: 2851–5.

108. Ellinor PT, Shin JT, Moore RK, et al. Locus for atrial fibrillation maps to chromo￾some 6q14–16. Circulation 2003;107:2880–3.

109. Darbar D, Herron KJ, Ballew JD, et al. Familial atrial fibrillation is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41: 2185–92.

110. Fioranelli M, Piccoli M, Mileto GM, et al. Analysis of heart rate variability five minutes before the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1999;22:743–9.

111. Herweg B, Dalal P, Nagy B, et al. Power spectral analysis of heart period variability of preceding sinus rhythm before initiation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1998;82:869–74.

112. Coumel P. Neural aspects of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. In: Falk RH, Podrid PJ, editors. Atrial Fibrillation: Mechanisms and Management. New York: Raven Press, 1992:109–25.

113. Maisel WH. Autonomic modulation preceding the onset of atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:1269–70.

114. Fetsch T, Bauer P, Engberding R, et al. Prevention of atrial fibrillation after cardioversion: results of the PAFAC trial. Eur Heart J 2004; 25:1385–94.

115. Israel CW, Gronefeld G, Ehrlich JR, et al. Long-term risk of recurrent atrial fibrillation as documented by an implantable monitoring device: implications for optimal patient care. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:47–52.

116. Page RL, Wilkinson WE, Clair WK, et al. Asymptomatic arrhythmias in patients with symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Circulation 1994;89:224–7.

117. Kerr CR, Boone J, Connolly SJ, et al. The Canadian Registry of Atrial Fibrillation: a noninterventional follow-up of patients after the first diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1998;82:82N-5N.

118. Singh BN, Singh SN, Reda DJ, et al. Amiodarone versus sotalol for atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1861–72.

119. Hamer ME, Blumenthal JA, McCarthy EA, et al. Quality-of-life assessment in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol 1994;74:826–9.

120. Savelieva I, Camm AJ. Clinical relevance of silent atrial fibrillation: prevalence, prognosis, quality of life, and management. J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2000;4:369–82.

121. Krahn AD, Klein GJ, Kerr CR, et al. How useful is thyroid function testing in patients with recent-onset atrial fibrillation? The Canadian Registry of Atrial Fib￾rillation Investigators. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:2221–4.

122. Zabalgoitia M, Halperin JL, Pearce LA, et al. Transesophageal echocardiographic correlates of clinical risk of thromboembolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation III Investigators. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;31:1622–6.

123. Healey JS, Crystal E, Lamy A, et al. Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion Study (LAAOS): results of a randomized controlled pilot study of left atrial appendage occlusion during coronary bypass surgery in patients at risk for stroke. Am Heart J 2005;150:288–93.

124. Sherman DG, Kim SG, Boop BS, et al. Occurrence and characteristics of stroke events in the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Sinus Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:1185–91.

125. Deleted in proof.

126. Van Gelder IC, Hagens VE, Bosker HA, et al. A comparison of rate control and rhythm control in patients with recurrent persistent atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2002;347:1834–40.

127. Gronefeld GC, Lilienthal J, Kuck KH, et al. Impact of rate versus rhythm control on quality of life in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. Results from a prospective randomized study. Eur Heart J 2003;24:1430–6.

128. Carlsson J, Miketic S, Windeler J, et al. Randomized trial of ratecontrol versus rhythm-control in persistent atrial fibrillation: the Strategies of Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (STAF) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:1690–6.

129. Opolski G, Torbicki A, Kosior DA, et al. Rate control vs. rhythm control in patients with nonvalvular persistent atrial fibrillation: the results of the Polish How to Treat Chronic Atrial Fibrillation (HOT CAFE) Study. Chest 2004;126:476–86.

130. Wyse DG, Waldo AL, DiMarco JP, et al. A comparison of rate control and rhythm control in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2002;347:1825–33.

131. Pelargonio G, Prystowsky EN. Rate versus rhythm control in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 2005;2:514–21.

132. Hohnloser SH, Kuck KH, Lilienthal J. Rhythm or rate control in atrial fibrillation—Pharmacological Intervention in Atrial Fibrillation (PIAF): a randomised trial. Lancet 2000;356:1789–94.

133. Hagens VE, Ranchor AV, Van SE, et al. Effect of rate or rhythm control on quality of life in persistent atrial fibrillation. Results from the Rate Control Versus Electrical Cardioversion (RACE) Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:241–7.

134. Cooper HA, Bloomfield DA, Bush DE, et al. Relation between achieved heart rate and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (from the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management [AFFIRM] Study). Am J Car￾diol 2004;93:1247–53.

135. Lonnerholm S, Blomstrom P, Nilsson L, et al. Effects of the maze operation on health-related quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2000;101:2607–11.

136. Oral H, Pappone C, Chugh A, et al. Circumferential pulmonary-vein ablation for chronic atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2006;354:934–41.

137. Levy S, Ricard P, Lau CP, et al. Multicenter low energy transvenous atrial defibrillation (XAD) trial results in different subsets of atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;29:750–5.

138. Lown B, Amarasingham R, Neuman J. New method for terminating cardiac arrhythmias: use of synchronized capacitor discharge. JAMA 1962;182:548–55.

139. Nerheim P, Birger-Botkin S, Piracha L, et al. Heart failure and sudden death in patients with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy and recurrent tachycardia. Circulation 2004;110:247–52.

140. Petri H, Kafka W, Rudolph W. [Discrepant effects of oral and intravenous verapamil on A-V conduction in patients with ventricular preexcitation and atrial fibrillation]. Herz 1983;8:144–52.

141. Wittkampf FH, de Jongste MJ, Lie HI, et al. Effect of right ventricular pacing on ventricular rhythm during atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 1988;11:539–45.

142. Brignole M, Menozzi C, Gianfranchi L, et al. Assessment of atrioventricular junction ablation and VVIR pacemaker versus pharmacological treatment in patients with heart failure and chronic atrial fibrillation: a randomized, controlled study. Circulation 1998; 98:953–60.

143. Kay GN, Ellenbogen KA, Giudici M, et al. The Ablate and Pace Trial: a prospec￾tive study of catheter ablation of the AV conduction system and permanent pacemaker implantation for treatment of atrial fibrillation. APT Investigators. J Interv Card Electrophysiol 1998; 2: 121–35.

144. Brignole M, Gianfranchi L, Menozzi C, et al. Assessment of atrioventricular junction ablation and DDDR mode-switching pacemaker versus pharmacological treatment in patients with severely symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled study. Circulation 1997;96:2617–24.

145. Wood MA, Brown-Mahoney C, Kay GN, et al. Clinical outcomes after ablation and pacing therapy for atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis. Circulation 2000;101:1138–44.

146. Williamson BD, Man KC, Daoud E, et al. Radiofrequency catheter modification of atrioventricular conduction to control the ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation [published erratum appears in N Engl J Med 1995;332:479]. N Engl J Med 1994;331:910–7.

147. Feld GK, Fleck RP, Fujimura O, et al. Control of rapid ventricular response by radiofrequency catheter modification of the atrioventricular node in patients with medically refractory atrial fibrillation. Circulation 1994;90:2299–307.

148. Evans GT Jr, Scheinman MM, Bardy G, et al. Predictors of in-hospital mortality after DC catheter ablation of atrioventricular junction. Results of a prospective, international, multicenter study. Circulation 1991;84:1924–37.

149. Leon AR, Greenberg JM, Kanuru N, et al. Cardiac resynchronization in patients with congestive heart failure and chronic atrial fibrillation: effect of upgrading to biventricular pacing after chronic right ventricular pacing. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:1258–63.

150. Hart RG, Pearce LA, Rothbart RM, et al. Stroke with intermittent atrial fibrillation: incidence and predictors during aspirin therapy. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:183–7.

151. Adjusted-dose warfarin versus low-intensity, fixed-dose warfarin plus aspirin for high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation: Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrilla￾tion III randomised clinical trial. Lancet 1996;348:633–8.

152. Landefeld CS, Goldman L. Major bleeding in outpatients treated with warfarin: incidence and prediction by factors known at the start of outpatient therapy. Am J Med 1989;87:144–52.

153. Moulton AW, Singer DE, Haas JS. Risk factors for stroke in patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation: a case-control study. Am J Med 1991;91:156–61.

154. Gage BF, Waterman AD, Shannon W, et al. Validation of clinical classification schemes for predicting stroke: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation. JAMA 2001;285:2864–70.

155. van Walraven WC, Hart RG, Wells GA, et al. A clinical prediction rule to iden￾tify patients with atrial fibrillation and a low risk for stroke while taking aspirin. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:936–43.

156. Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at low risk of stroke during treatment with aspirin: Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation III Study. The SPAF III Writing Committee for the Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. JAMA 1998;279:1273–7.

157. Howitt A, Armstrong D. Implementing evidence based medicine in general practice: audit and qualitative study of antithrombotic treatment for atrial fibrillation. BMJ 1999;318:1324–7.

158. Biblo LA, Yuan Z, Quan KJ, et al. Risk of stroke in patients with atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 2001;87:346–9, A9.

159. Petersen P, Boysen G, Godtfredsen J, et al. Placebo-controlled, randomised trial of warfarin and aspirin for prevention of thromboembolic complications in chronic atrial fibrillation. The Copenhagen AFASAK study. Lancet 1989;1:175–9.

160. Connolly SJ, Laupacis A, Gent M, et al. Canadian Atrial Fibrillation Anticoagulation (CAFA) Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1991;18:349–55.

161. Ezekowitz MD, Bridgers SL, James KE, et al. Warfarin in the prevention of stroke associated with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. Veterans Affairs Stroke Prevention in Nonrheumatic Atrial Fibrillation Investigators [published erratum appears in N Engl J Med 1993;328:148]. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1406–12.

162. The effect of low-dose warfarin on the risk of stroke in patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. The Boston Area Anticoagulation Trial for Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 1505–11.

163. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Study. Final results. Circulation 1991;84:527–39.

164. Deleted in proof.

165. Deleted in proof.

166. Secondary prevention in non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation after transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke. EAFT (European Atrial Fibrillation Trial) Study Group. Lancet 1993;342:1255–62.

167. Hart RG, Benavente O, McBride R, et al. Antithrombotic therapy to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1999;131:492–501.

168. Hylek EM, Singer DE. Risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage in outpatients taking warfarin. Ann Intern Med 1994;120:897–902.

169. Ode´n A, Fahle´n M, Hart RG. Optimal INR for prevention of stroke and death in atrial fibrillation: a critical appraisal. Thromb Res 2006; 117:493–9

170. Fihn SD, Callahan CM, Martin DC, et al. The risk for and severity of bleeding complications in elderly patients treated with warfarin. The National Consortium of Anticoagulation Clinics. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:970–9.

171. Fang MC, Chang Y, Hylek EM, et al. Advanced age, anticoagulation intensity, and risk for intracranial hemorrhage among patients taking warfarin for atrial fibrillation. Ann Intern Med 2004; 141: 745–52.

172. Hylek EM, Go AS, Chang Y, et al. Effect of intensity of oral anticoagulation on stroke severity and mortality in atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1019–26.

173. Hart RG, Tonarelli SB, Pearce LA. Avoiding central nervous system bleeding during antithrombotic therapy: recent data and ideas. Stroke 2005;36:1588–93.

174. Albers GW, Diener HC, Frison L, et al. Ximelagatran vs. warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: a randomized trial. JAMA 2005;293:690–8.

175. Hylek EM, Skates SJ, Sheehan MA, et al. An analysis of the lowest effective intensity of prophylactic anticoagulation for patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 1996;335:540–6.

176. Gullov AL, Koefoed BG, Petersen P. Bleeding during warfarin and aspirin therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation: the AFASAK 2 study. Atrial Fibrillation Aspirin and Anticoagulation. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:1322–8.

177. Hellemons BS, Langenberg M, Lodder J, et al. Primary prevention of arterial thromboembolism in non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation in primary care: randomised controlled trial comparing two intensities of coumarin with aspirin. BMJ 1999;319:958–64.

178. Warfarin versus aspirin for prevention of thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation: Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation II Study. Lancet 1994;343:687–91.

179. Diener HC, Cunha L, Forbes C. et al. European Stroke Prevention Study-2 (ESPS- 2). Dipyridamole and acetylsalicylic acid in the secondary prevention of stroke. J Neurol Sci 1996;143:1–13.

180. European Stroke Prevention Study. ESPS Group. Stroke 1990;21:1122–30.

181. Posada IS, Barriales V. Alternate-day dosing of aspirin in atrial fibrillation. LASAF Pilot Study Group. Am Heart J 1999;138:137–43.

182. Farrell B, Godwin J, Richards S, et al. The United Kingdom transient ischaemic attack (UK-TIA) aspirin trial: final results. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1991;54:1044–54.

183. The efficacy of aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation. Analysis of pooled data from 3 randomized trials. The Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:1237–40.

184. Deleted in proof.

185. Hart RG, Benavente O, Pearce LA. Increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage when aspirin is combined with warfarin: a meta-analysis and hypothesis. Cerebrovasc Dis 1999;9:215–7.

186. Stellbrink C, Nixdorff U, Hofmann T, et al. Safety and efficacy of enoxaparin compared with unfractionated heparin and oral anticoagulants for prevention of thromboembolic complications in cardioversion of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: the Anticoagulation in Cardioversion using Enoxaparin (ACE) trial. Cir￾culation 2004; 109: 997–1003.

187. Hirsh J, Warkentin TE, Shaughnessy SG, et al. Heparin and low-molecular￾weight heparin: mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, dosing, monitoring, efficacy, and safety. Chest 2001;119:64S–94S.

188. Murray RD, Deitcher SR, Shah A, et al. Potential clinical efficacy and cost benefit of a transesophageal echocardiography-guided low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin) approach to antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing immediate cardioversion from atrial fibrillation. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2001;14:200–8.

189. Stein PD, Alpert JS, Bussey HI, et al. Antithrombotic therapy in patients with mechanical and biological prosthetic heart valves. Chest 2001;119:220S–7S.

190. Blackshear JL, Johnson WD, Odell JA, et al. Thoracoscopic extracardiac obliteration of the left atrial appendage for stroke risk reduction in atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:1249–52.

191. Ostermayer SH, Reisman M, Kramer PH, et al. Percutaneous left atrial appendage transcatheter occlusion (PLAATO system) to prevent stroke in highrisk patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation: results from the international multi-center feasibility trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:9–14.

192. Halperin JL, Gomberg-Maitland M. Obliteration of the left atrial appendage for prevention of thromboembolism. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:1259–61.

193. Suttorp MJ, Kingma JH, Jessurun ER, et al. The value of class IC antiarrhythmic drugs for acute conversion of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or flutter to sinus rhythm. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16:1722–7.

194. Platia EV, Michelson EL, Porterfield JK, et al. Esmolol versus verapamil in the acute treatment of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 1989;63:925–9.

195. Azpitarte J, Alvarez M, Baun O, et al. Value of single oral loading dose of propafenone in converting recent-onset atrial fibrillation. Results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Eur Heart J 1997;18:1649–54.

196. Kochiadakis GE, Igoumenidis NE, Solomou MC, et al. Efficacy of amiodarone for the termination of persistent atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1999;83:58–61.

197. Capucci A, Boriani G, Rubino I, et al. A controlled study on oral propafenone versus digoxin plus quinidine in converting recent onset atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. Int J Cardiol 1994;43:305–13.

198. Vaughan Williams EM. A classification of antiarrhythmic actions reassessed after a decade of new drugs. J Clin Pharmacol 1984; 24:129–47.

199. Falk RH, Pollak A, Singh SN, et al. Intravenous dofetilide, a class III antiarrhyth￾mic agent, for the termination of sustained atrial fibrillation or flutter. Intravenous Dofetilide Investigators. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;29:385–90.

200. Norgaard BL, Wachtell K, Christensen PD, et al. Efficacy and safety of intravenously administered dofetilide in acute termination of atrial fibrillation and flutter: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Danish Dofetilide in Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter Study Group. Am Heart J 1999;137:1062–9.

201. Sedgwick ML, Lip G, Rae AP, et al. Chemical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation with intravenous dofetilide. Int J Cardiol 1995; 49:159–66.

202. Torp-Pedersen C, Moller M, Bloch-Thomsen PE, et al. Dofetilide in patients with congestive heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction. Danish Investigations of Arrhythmia and Mortality on Dofetilide Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999;341:857–65.

203. Lindeboom JE, Kingma JH, Crijns HJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of intravenous dofetilide for rapid termination of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 2000;85:1031–3.

204. Singh S, Zoble RG, Yellen L, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral dofetilide in converting to and maintaining sinus rhythm in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter: the symptomatic atrial fibrillation investigative research on dofetilide (SAFIRE-D) study. Circulation 2000;102:2385–90.

205. Borgeat A, Goy JJ, Maendly R, et al. Flecainide versus quinidine for conversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. Am J Cardiol 1986; 58:496–8.

206. Suttorp MJ, Kingma JH, Lie AH, et al. Intravenous flecainide versus verapamil for acute conversion of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or flutter to sinus rhythm. Am J Cardiol 1989;63:693–6.

207. Capucci A, Lenzi T, Boriani G, et al. Effectiveness of loading oral flecainide for converting recent-onset atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm in patients without organic heart disease or with only systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol 1992;70:69–72.

208. Donovan KD, Power BM, Hockings BE, et al. Intravenous flecainide versus amiodarone for recent-onset atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1995;75:693–7.

209. Botto GL, Bonini W, Broffoni T, et al. Regular ventricular rhythms before con￾version of recent onset atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1994;17:2114–7.

210. Donovan KD, Dobb GJ, Coombs LJ, et al. Reversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm by intravenous flecainide. Am J Cardiol 1991;67:137–41.

211. Barranco F, Sanchez M, Rodriguez J, et al. Efficacy of flecainide in patients with supraventricular arrhythmias and respiratory insufficiency. Intensive Care Med 1994;20:42–4.

212. Baldi N, Russo VA, Lenti V, et al. Relation between plasma levels and efficacy of flecainide and propafenone for treatment of atrial fibrillation of recent onset. New Trends Arrhythmias 1993;9:899–906.

213. Stambler BS, Wood MA, Ellenbogen KA. Antiarrhythmic actions of intravenous ibutilide compared with procainamide during human atrial flutter and fibrillation: electrophysiological determinants of enhanced conversion efficacy. Circulation 1997;96:4298–306.

214. Guo GB, Ellenbogen KA, Wood MA, et al. Conversion of atrial flutter by ibutilide is associated with increased atrial cycle length variability. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:1083–9.

215. Volgman AS, Carberry PA, Stambler B, et al. Conversion efficacy and safety of intravenous ibutilide compared with intravenous procainamide in patients with atrial flutter or fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;31:1414–9.

216. Vos MA, Golitsyn SR, Stangl K, et al. Superiority of ibutilide (a new class III agent) over DL-sotalol in converting atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. The Ibutilide/Sotalol Comparator Study Group. Heart 1998;79:568–75.

217. Stambler BS, Wood MA, Ellenbogen KA, et al. Efficacy and safety of repeated intravenous doses of ibutilide for rapid conversion of atrial flutter or fibrillation. Ibutilide Repeat Dose Study Investigators. Circulation 1996;94:1613–21.

218. Ellenbogen KA, Stambler BS, Wood MA, et al. Efficacy of intravenous ibutilide for rapid termination of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter: a dose-response study [published erratum appears in J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28:1082]. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28:130–6.

219. Bertini G, Conti A, Fradella G, et al. Propafenone versus amiodarone in field treatment of primary atrial tachydysrhythmias. J Emerg Med 1990;8:15–20.

220. Boriani G, Capucci A, Lenzi T, et al. Propafenone for conversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation. A controlled comparison between oral loading dose and intravenous administration. Chest 1995; 108: 355–8.

221. Boriani G, Biffi M, Capucci A, et al. Oral propafenone to convert recent-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with and without underlying heart disease. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1997;126:621–5.

222. Fresco C, Proclemer A, Pavan A, et al. Intravenous propafenone in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, doubleblind, multicenter clinical trial. Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Italian Trial (PAFIT)-2 Investigators. Clin Cardiol 1996;19:409–12.

223. Stroobandt R, Stiels B, Hoebrechts R. Propafenone for conversion and prophylaxis of atrial fibrillation. Propafenone Atrial Fibrillation Trial Investigators. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:418–23.

224. Bellandi F, Cantini F, Pedone T, et al. Effectiveness of intravenous propafenone for conversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation: a placebocontrolled study. Clin Cardiol 1995;18:631–4.

225. Bianconi L, Mennuni M, Lukic V, et al. Effects of oral propafenone administration before electrical cardioversion of chronic atrial fibrillation: a placebo-controlled study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28:700–6.

226. Weiner P, Ganam R, Ganem R, et al. Clinical course of recent-onset atrial fib￾rillation treated with oral propafenone. Chest 1994; 105: 1013–6.

227. Di Benedetto S. Quinidine versus propafenone for conversion of atrial fibrilla￾tion to sinus rhythm. Am J Cardiol 1997;80:518–9.

228. Vita JA, Friedman PL, Cantillon C, et al. Efficacy of intravenous propafenone for the acute management of atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1989;63:1275–8.

229. Barroffio R, Tisi G, Guzzini F, et al. A randomised study comparing digoxin and propafenone in the treatment of recent onset atrial fibrillation. Clin Drug Invest 1995;9:277–83.

230. Galve E, Rius T, Ballester R, et al. Intravenous amiodarone in treatment of recent-onset atrial fibrillation: results of a randomized, controlled study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:1079–82.

231. Peuhkurinen K, Niemela M, Ylitalo A, et al. Effectiveness of amiodarone as a single oral dose for recent-onset atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 2000;85:462–5.

232. Zehender M, Hohnloser S, Muller B, et al. Effects of amiodarone versus quini￾dine and verapamil in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation: results of a comparative study and a 2-year follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;19:1054–9.

233. Hou ZY, Chang MS, Chen CY, et al. Acute treatment of recent-onset atrial fibrillation and flutter with a tailored dosing regimen of intravenous amiodarone. A randomized, digoxin-controlled study. Eur Heart J 1995;16:521–8.

234. Opolski G, Stanislawska J, Gorecki A, et al. Amiodarone in restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation after unsuccessful direct-current cardioversion. Clin Cardiol 1997;20:337–40.

235. Noc M, Stajer D, Horvat M. Intravenous amiodarone versus verapamil for acute conversion of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. Am J Cardiol 1990;65:679–80.

236. Tieleman RG, Gosselink AT, Crijns HJ, et al. Efficacy, safety, and determinants of conversion of atrial fibrillation and flutter with oral amiodarone. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:53–7.

237. Vardas PE, Kochiadakis GE, Igoumenidis NE, et al. Amiodarone as a first-choice drug for restoring sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation: a random￾ized, controlled study. Chest 2000; 117: 1538–45.

238. Kerin NZ, Faitel K, Naini M. The efficacy of intravenous amiodarone for the conversion of chronic atrial fibrillation. Amiodarone vs. quinidine for conversion of atrial fibrillation. Arch Intern Med 1996; 156:49–53.

239. Hohnloser SH, van de LA, Baedeker F. Efficacy and proarrhythmic hazards of pharmacologic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: prospective comparison of sotalol versus quinidine. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995;26:852–8.

240. Halinen MO, Huttunen M, Paakkinen S, et al. Comparison of sotalol with digoxin-quinidine for conversion of acute atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm (the Sotalol-Digoxin-Quinidine Trial). Am J Cardiol 1995;76:495–8.

241. Madrid AH, Moro C, Marin-Huerta E, et al. Comparison of flecainide and procainamide in cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 1993;14:1127–31.

242. Deleted in proof.

243. Falk RH, Knowlton AA, Bernard SA, et al. Digoxin for converting recent-onset atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. A randomized, doubleblinded trial. Ann Intern Med 1987;106:503–6.

244. Singh S, Saini RK, DiMarco J, et al. Efficacy and safety of sotalol in digitalized patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. The Sotalol Study Group. Am J Cardiol 1991;68:1227–30.

245. Jordaens L. Conversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm and rate control by digoxin in comparison to placebo. Eur Heart J 1997;18:643–8.

246. Deleted in proof.

247. Intravenous digoxin in acute atrial fibrillation. Results of a randomized, placebocontrolled multicentre trial in 239 patients. The Digitalis in Acute Atrial Fibrillation (DAAF) Trial Group. Eur Heart J 1997;18:649–54.

248. Sung RJ, Tan HL, Karagounis L, et al. Intravenous sotalol for the termination of supraventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation and flutter: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sotalol Multicenter Study Group. Am Heart J 1995; 129: 739–48.

249. Nakazawa H, Lythall DA, Noh J, et al. Is there a place for the late cardioversion of atrial fibrillation? A long-term follow-up study of patients with post-thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2000; 21: 327–33.

250. Botto GL, Capucci A, Bonini W, et al. Conversion of recent onset atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm using a single oral loading dose of propafenone: comparison of two regimens. Int J Cardiol 1997; 58: 55–61.

251. Deleted in proof.

252. Pilati G, Lenzi T, Trisolino G, et al. Amiodarone versus quinidine for conversion of recent onset atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. Curr Ther Res 1991;49:140–6.

253. Alboni P, Botto GL, Baldi N, et al. Outpatient treatment of recent-onset atrial fibrillation with the ‘pill-in-the-pocket’ approach. N Engl J Med 2004;351:2384–91.

254. Capucci A, Villani GQ, Piepoli MF, et al. The role of oral 1C antiarrhythmic drugs in terminating atrial fibrillation. Curr Opin Cardiol 1999;14:4–8.

255. Alboni P, Tomasi C, Menozzi C, et al. Efficacy and safety of out-of-hospital selfadministered single-dose oral drug treatment in the management of infrequent, well-tolerated paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:548–53.

256. Capucci A, Villani GQ, Piepoli MF. Reproducible efficacy of loading oral propafenone in restoring sinus rhythm in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 2003;92:1345–7.

257. Khan IA. Single oral loading dose of propafenone for pharmacological cardioversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:542–7.

258. Feld GK. Atrial fibrillation. Is there a safe and highly effective pharmacological treatment? Circulation 1990;82:2248–50.

259. Leitch JW, Klein GJ, Yee R, et al. Prognostic value of electrophysiology testing in asymptomatic patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern [published erratum appears in Circulation 1991;83:1124]. Circulation 1990;82:1718–23.

260. Gosselink AT, Crijns HJ, Van Gelder IC, et al. Low-dose amiodarone for maintenance of sinus rhythm after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation or flutter. JAMA 1992;267:3289–93.

261. Hauser TH, Pinto DS, Josephson ME, et al. Safety and feasibility of a clinical pathway for the outpatient initiation of antiarrhythmic medications in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 2003;91:1437–41.

262. Levy S, Ricard P, Gueunoun M, et al. Low-energy cardioversion of spontaneous atrial fibrillation. Immediate and long-term results. Circulation 1997;96:253–9.

263. Lesser MF. Safety and efficacy of in-office cardioversion for treatment of supraventricular arrhythmias. Am J Cardiol 1990;66:1267–8.

264. Joglar JA, Hamdan MH, Ramaswamy K, et al. Initial energy for elective external cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 2000;86:348–50.

265. Wozakowska-Kaplon B, Janion M, Sielski J, et al. Efficacy of biphasic shock for transthoracic cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation: can we predict energy requirements? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2004;27:764–8.

266. Bjerkelund CJ, Orning OM. The efficacy of anticoagulant therapy in preventing embolism related to D.C. electrical conversion of atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1969;23:208–16.

267. Arnold AZ, Mick MJ, Mazurek RP, et al. Role of prophylactic anticoagulation for direct current cardioversion in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;19:851–5.

268. Rabbino MD, Likoff W, Dreifus LS. Complications and limitations of direct current countershock. JAMA 1964;190:417–20.

269. Lown B, Kleiger R, Williams J. Cardioversion and digitalis drugs: changed threshold to electric shock in digitalized animals. Circ Res 1965;17:519–31.

270. Aberg H, Cullhed I. Direct current countershock complications. Acta Med Scand 1968;183:415–21.

271. Mancini GB, Goldberger AL. Cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: consideration of embolization, anticoagulation, prophylactic pacemaker, and long-term success. Am Heart J 1982;104:617–21.

272. Timmermans C, Rodriguez LM, Ayers GM, et al. Effect of electrode length on atrial defibrillation thresholds. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1998;9:582–7.

273. Tieleman RG, Van Gelder IC, Crijns HJ, et al. Early recurrences of atrial fibrillation after electrical cardioversion: a result of fibrillation-induced electrical re￾modeling of the atria? J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;31:167–73.

274. Timmermans C, Rodriguez LM, Smeets JL, et al. Immediate reinitiation of atrial fibrillation following internal atrial defibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1998;9:122–8.

275. Rossi M, Lown B. The use of quinidine in cardioversion. Am J Cardiol 1967;19:234–8.

276. Van Gelder IC, Crijns HJ, van Gilst WH, et al. Prediction of uneventful cardioversion and maintenance of sinus rhythm from direct-current electrical cardioversion of chronic atrial fibrillation and flutter. Am J Cardiol 1991;68:41–6.

277. Lundstrom T, Ryden L. Chronic atrial fibrillation. Long-term results of direct current conversion. Acta Med Scand 1988;223:53–9.

278. Niebauer MJ, Brewer JE, Chung MK, et al. Comparison of the rectilinear biphasic waveform with the monophasic damped sine waveform for external car￾dioversion of atrial fibrillation and flutter. Am J Cardiol 2004;93:1495–9.

279. Van Gelder IC, Crijns HJ, van Gilst WH, et al. Efficacy and safety of flecainide acetate in the maintenance of sinus rhythm after electrical cardioversion of chronic atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 1989;64:1317–21.

280. Crijns HJ, Van Gelder IC, Lie KI. Supraventricular tachycardia mimicking ventricular tachycardia during flecainide treatment. Am J Cardiol 1988;62:1303–6.

281. Van Gelder IC, Crijns HJ, van Gilst WH, et al. Effects of flecainide on the atrial defibrillation threshold. Am J Cardiol 1989;63:112–4.

282. Oral H, Souza JJ, Michaud GF, et al. Facilitating transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation with ibutilide pretreatment. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1849–54.

283. Li H, Natale A, Tomassoni G, et al. Usefulness of ibutilide in facilitating successful external cardioversion of refractory atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1999;84:1096–8, A10.

284. Naccarelli GV, Dell’Orfano JT, Wolbrette DL, et al. Cost-effective management of acute atrial fibrillation: role of rate control, spontaneous conversion, medical and direct current cardioversion, transesophageal echocardiography, and antiembolic therapy. Am J Cardiol 2000;85:36D–45D.

285. Manning WJ, Silverman DI, Gordon SP, et al. Cardioversion from atrial fibrillation without prolonged anticoagulation with use of transesophageal echocardiography to exclude the presence of atrial thrombi. N Engl J Med 1993;328:750–5.

286. Black IW, Fatkin D, Sagar KB, et al. Exclusion of atrial thrombus by trans￾esophageal echocardiography does not preclude embolism aftercardioversion of atrial fibrillation. A multicenter study. Circulation 1994;89:2509–13.

287. Moreyra E, Finkelhor RS, Cebul RD. Limitations of transesophageal echocardiography in the risk assessment of patients before nonanticoagulated cardioversion from atrial fibrillation and flutter: an analysis of pooled trials. Am Heart J 1995;129:71–5.

288. Fatkin D, Kuchar DL, Thorburn CW, et al. Transesophageal echocardiography before and during direct current cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: evidence for ‘atrial stunning’ as a mechanism of thromboembolic complications. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;23:307–16.

289. Antonielli E, Pizzuti A, Bassignana A, et al. Transesophageal echocardiographic evidence of more pronounced left atrial stunning after chemical (propafenone) rather than electrical attempts at cardioversion from atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1999;84:1092–10.

290. Falcone RA, Morady F, Armstrong WF. Transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of left atrial appendage function and spontaneous contrast formation after chemical or electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1996;78:435–9.

291. Bellotti P, Spirito P, Lupi G, et al. Left atrial appendage function assessed by transesophageal echocardiography before and on the day after elective cardioversion for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1998;81:1199–202.

292. Harjai K, Mobarek S, Abi-Samra F, et al. Mechanical dysfunction of the left atrium and the left atrial appendage following cardioversion of atrial fibrillation and its relation to total electrical energy used for cardioversion. Am J Cardiol 1998;81:1125–9.

293. Mitusch R, Garbe M, Schmucker G, et al. Relation of left atrial appendage function to the duration and reversibility of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1995;75:944–7.

294. Manning WJ, Silverman DI, Katz SE, et al. Temporal dependence of the return of atrial mechanical function on the mode of cardioversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. Am J Cardiol 1995;75:624–6.

295. Grimm RA, Leung DY, Black IW, et al. Left atrial appendage ‘stunning’ after spontaneous conversion of atrial fibrillation demonstrated by transesophageal Doppler echocardiography. Am Heart J 1995;130:174–6.

296. Klein AL, Grimm RA, Murray RD, et al. Use of transesophageal echocardiog￾raphy to guide cardioversion in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1411–20.

297. Mehta D, Baruch L. Thromboembolism following cardioversion of ‘common’ atrial flutter. Risk factors and limitations of transesophageal echocardiography. Chest 1996;110:1001–3.

298. Irani WN, Grayburn PA, Afridi I. Prevalence of thrombus, spontaneous echo contrast, and atrial stunning in patients undergoing cardioversion of atrial flutter. A prospective study using transesophageal echocardiography. Circulation 1997;95:962–6.

299. Lazzeroni E, Picano E, Morozzi L, et al. Dipyridamole-induced ischemia as a prognostic marker of future adverse cardiac events in adult patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Echo Persantine Italian Cooperative (EPIC) Study Group, Subproject Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Circulation 1997;96:4268–72.

300. Deleted in proof.

301. Kerr CR, Humphries KH, Talajic M, et al. Progression to chronic atrial fibrillation after the initial diagnosis of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: results from the Canadian Registry of Atrial Fibrillation. Am Heart J 2005;149:489–96.

302. Van Gelder IC, Crijns HJ, Tieleman RG, et al. Chronic atrial fibrillation. Success of serial cardioversion therapy and safety of oral anticoagulation. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:2585–92.

303. Van Gelder IC, Tuinenburg AE, Schoonderwoerd BS, et al. Pharmacologic versus direct-current electrical cardioversion of atrial flutter and fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1999;84:147R–51R.

304. Suttorp MJ, Kingma JH, Koomen EM, et al. Recurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or flutter after successful cardioversion in patients with normal left ventricular function. Am J Cardiol 1993;71:710–3.

305. Prystowsky EN. Management of atrial fibrillation: therapeutic options and clinical decisions. Am J Cardiol 2000;85:3–11.

306. Singh SN, Fletcher RD, Fisher SG, et al. Amiodarone in patients with congestive heart failure and asymptomatic ventricular arrhythmia. Survival Trial of An￾tiarrhythmic Therapy in Congestive Heart Failure. N Engl J Med 1995;333:77–82.

307. Ehrlich JR, Nattel S, Hohnloser SH. Atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure: specific considerations at the intersection of two common and important cardiac disease sets. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2002;13:399–405.

308. Maisel WH, Stevenson LW. Atrial fibrillation in heart failure: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and rationale for therapy. Am J Cardiol 2003;91:2D–8D.

309. Naccarelli GV, Hynes BJ, Wolbrette DL, et al. Atrial fibrillation in heart failure: prognostic significance and management. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2003;14:S281–S286.

310. Meng F, Yoshikawa T, Baba A, et al. Beta-blockers are effective in congestive heart failure patients with atrial fibrillation. J Card Fail 2003;9:398–403.

311. Steeds RP, Birchall AS, Smith M, et al. An open label, randomised, crossover study comparing sotalol and atenolol in the treatment of symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Heart 1999;82:170–5.

312. Kuhlkamp V, Schirdewan A, Stangl K, et al. Use of metoprolol CR/XL to maintain sinus rhythm after conversion from persistent atrial fibrillation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:139–46.

313. Essebag V, Hadjis T, Platt RW, et al. Amiodarone and the risk of bradyarrhythmia requiring permanent pacemaker in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation and prior myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:249–54.

314. Julian DG, Camm AJ, Frangin G, et al. Randomised trial of effect of amiodarone on mortality in patients with left-ventricular dysfunction after recent myocardial infarction: EMIAT. European Myocardial Infarct Amiodarone Trial Investiga￾tors [published errata appear in Lancet 1997;349:1180 and 1997;349:1776]. Lancet 1997; 349: 667–74.

315. Cairns JA, Connolly SJ, Roberts R, et al. Randomised trial of outcome after myocardial infarction in patients with frequent or repetitive ventricular premature depolarisations: CAMIAT. Canadian Amiodarone Myocardial Infarction Ar￾rhythmia Trial Investigators [published erratum appears in Lancet 1997 Jun 14;349(9067):1776]. Lancet 1997;349:675–82.

316. Kober L, Bloch Thomsen PE, Moller M, et al. Effect of dofetilide in patients with recent myocardial infarction and left-ventricular dysfunction: a randomised trial. Lancet 2000;356:2052–8.

317. Peters NS, Schilling RJ, Kanagaratnam P, et al. Atrial fibrillation: strategies to control, combat, and cure. Lancet 2002;359:593–603.

318. Tsang TS, Petty GW, Barnes ME, et al. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation in incident stroke cases and matched population controls in Rochester, Minnesota: changes over three decades. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:93–100.

319. Jackman WM, Friday KJ, Anderson JL, et al. The long QT syndromes: a critical review, new clinical observations and a unifying hypothesis. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1988;31:115–72.

320. Van Noord T, Tieleman RG, Bosker HA, et al. Beta-blockers prevent subacute recurrences of persistent atrial fibrillation only in patients with hypertension. Europace 2004;6:343–50.

321. Klingbeil AU, Schneider M, Martus P, et al. A meta-analysis of the effects of treatment on left ventricular mass in essential hypertension. Am J Med 2003;115:41–6.

322. L’Allier PL, Ducharme A, Keller PF, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in hypertensive patients is associated with a reduction in the occurrence of atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:159–64.

323. Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J, et al. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000;342:145–53.

324. Bosch J, Yusuf S, Pogue J, et al. Use of ramipril in preventing stroke: double blind randomised trial. BMJ 2002;324:699–702.

325. Chapman N, Huxley R, Anderson C, et al. Effects of a perindopril-based blood pressure-lowering regimen on the risk of recurrent stroke according to stroke subtype and medical history: the PROGRESS Trial. Stroke 2004;35:116–21.

326. Dahlof B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002;359:995–1003.

327. Dahlof B, Zanchetti A, Diez J, et al. Effects of losartan and atenolol on left ventricular mass and neurohormonal profile in patients with essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. J Hypertens 2002;20:1855–64.

328. Arima H, Hart RG, Colman S, et al. Perindopril-based blood pressurelowering reduces major vascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation and prior stroke or transient ischemic attack. Stroke 2005;36:2164–9.

329. Wachtell K, Hornestam B, Lehto M, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients with a history of atrial fibrillation: the Losartan Intervention For End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:705–11.

330. Cox JL, Schuessler RB, Lappas DG, et al. An 8 1/2-year clinical experience with surgery for atrial fibrillation. Ann Surg 1996; 224:267–73.

331. Cox JL. Cardiac surgery for arrhythmias. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2004;15:250–62.

332. Cox JL, Boineau JP, Schuessler RB, et al. Modification of the maze procedure for atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. I. Rationale and surgical results. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1995;110:473–84.

333. Damiano RJ Jr, Gaynor SL, Bailey M, et al. The long-term outcome of patients with coronary disease and atrial fibrillation undergoing the Cox maze procedure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003;126: 2016–21.

334. Gillinov AM, McCarthy PM. Advances in the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. Cardiol Clin 2004;22:147–57.

335. Packer DL, Asirvatham S, Munger TM. Progress in nonpharmacologic therapy of atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2003; 14:S296–S309.

336. Chen SA, Hsieh MH, Tai CT, et al. Initiation of atrial fibrillation by ectopic beats originating from the pulmonary veins: electrophysiological characteristics, pharmacological responses, and effects of radiofrequency ablation. Circulation 1999;100:1879–86.

337. Lin WS, Tai CT, Hsieh MH, et al. Catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation initiated by non-pulmonary vein ectopy. Circulation 2003;107:3176–83.

338. Hocini M, Sanders P, Jais P, et al. Techniques for curative treatment of atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2004;15:1467–71.

339. Haissaguerre M, Shah DC, Jais P, et al. Electrophysiological breakthroughs from the left atrium to the pulmonary veins. Circulation 2000;102:2463–5.

340. Verma A, Marrouche NF, Natale A. Pulmonary vein antrum isolation: intracar￾diac echocardiography-guided technique. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2004;15:1335–40.

341. Wazni OM, Marrouche NF, Martin DO, et al. Radiofrequency ablation vs. antiarrhythmic drugs as first-line treatment of symptomatic atrial fibrillation: a randomized trial. JAMA 2005;293:2634–40.

342. Pappone C, Rosanio S, Oreto G, et al. Circumferential radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary vein ostia: a new anatomic approach for curing atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2000;102:2619–28.

343. Pappone C, Santinelli V. The who, what, why, and how-to guide for circumferential pulmonary vein ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2004;15:1226–30.

344. Oral H, Scharf C, Chugh A, et al. Catheter ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: segmental pulmonary vein ostial ablation versus left atrial ablation. Circulation 2003;108:2355–60.

345. Cappato R, Calkins H, Chen SA, et al. Worldwide survey on the methods, efficacy, and safety of catheter ablation for human atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2005;111:1100–5.

346. Nademanee K, McKenzie J, Kosar E, et al. A new approach for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: mapping of the electrophysiologic substrate. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:2044–53.

347. Hsu LF, Jais P, Sanders P, et al. Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation in congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 2004;351:2373–83.

348. Pappone C, Rosanio S, Augello G, et al. Mortality, morbidity, and quality of life after circumferential pulmonary vein ablation for atrial fibrillation: outcomes from a controlled nonrandomized longterm study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:185–97.

349. Marshall HJ, Harris ZI, Griffith MJ, et al. Prospective randomized study of ablation and pacing versus medical therapy for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: effects of pacing mode and mode-switch algorithm. Circulation 1999;99:1587–92.

350. Natale A, Zimerman L, Tomassoni G, et al. AV node ablation and pacemaker implantation after withdrawal of effective rate-control medications for chronic atrial fibrillation: effect on quality of life and exercise performance. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1999;22:1634–9.

351. Marshall HJ, Harris ZI, Griffith MJ, et al. Atrioventricular nodal ablation and implantation of mode switching dual chamber pacemakers: effective treatment for drug refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Heart 1998;79:543–7.

352. Hindricks G, Piorkowski C, Tanner H, et al. Perception of atrial fibrillation before and after radiofrequency catheter ablation: relevance of asymptomatic arrhythmia recurrence. Circulation 2005;112: 307–13.

353. Senatore G, Stabile G, Bertaglia E, et al. Role of transtelephonic electrocardiographic monitoring in detecting short-term arrhythmia recurrences after radiofrequency ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:873–6.

354. Karch MR, Zrenner B, Deisenhofer I, et al. Freedom from atrial tachyarrhythmias after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: a randomized comparison between 2 current ablation strategies. Circulation 2005;111:2875–80.

355. Haissaguerre M, Jais P, Shah DC, et al. Electrophysiological end point for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation initiated from multiple pulmonary venous foci. Circulation 2000;101:1409–17.

356. Ren JF, Marchlinski FE, Callans DJ, et al. Increased intensity of anticoagulation may reduce risk of thrombus during atrial fibrillation ablation procedures in patients with spontaneous echo contrast. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2005;16:474–7.

357. Pappone C, Oral H, Santinelli V, et al. Atrio-esophageal fistula as a complication of percutaneous transcatheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2004;109:2724–6.

358. Scanavacca MI, D’avila A, Parga J, et al. Left atrial-esophageal fistula following radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2004;15:960–2.

359. Mesas CE, Pappone C, Lang CC, et al. Left atrial tachycardia after circumferential pulmonary vein ablation for atrial fibrillation: electroanatomic characterization and treatment. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:1071–9.

360. Pappone C, Manguso F, Vicedomini G, et al. Prevention of iatrogenic atrial tachycardia after ablation of atrial fibrillation: a prospective randomized study comparing circumferential pulmonary vein ablation with a modified approach. Circulation 2004;110:3036–42.

361. Andersen HR, Nielsen JC, Thomsen PE, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients from a randomised trial of atrial versus ventricular pacing for sick-sinus syndrome. Lancet 1997;350:1210–6.

362. Connolly SJ, Kerr CR, Gent M, et al. Effects of physiologic pacing versus ventricular pacing on the risk of stroke and death due to cardiovascular causes. Canadian Trial of Physiologic Pacing Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000;342:1385–91.

363. Lamas GA, Orav EJ, Stambler BS, et al. Quality of life and clinical outcomes in elderly patients treated with ventricular pacing as compared with dual-chamber pacing. Pacemaker Selection in the Elderly Investigators. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1097–104.

364. Lamas GA, Lee KL, Sweeney MO, et al. Ventricular pacing or dualchamber pacing for sinus-node dysfunction. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1854–62.

365. Knight BP, Gersh BJ, Carlson MD, et al. Role of permanent pacing to prevent atrial fibrillation: science advisory from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias) and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group, in collaboration with the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation 2005;111:240–3.

366. Deleted in proof.

367. Blanc JJ, De Roy L, Mansourati J, et al. Atrial pacing for prevention of atrial fibrillation: assessment of simultaneously implemented algorithms. Europace 2004;6:371–9.

368. Friedman PA, Ip JH, Jazayeri M, et al. The impact of atrial prevention and termination therapies on atrial tachyarrhythmia burden in patients receiving a dual-chamber defibrillator for ventricular arrhythmias. J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2004;10:103–10.

369. Alsheikh-Ali AA, Wang PJ, Rand W, et al. Enalapril treatment and hospitalization with atrial tachyarrhythmias in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Am Heart J 2004;147:1061–5.

370. Olsson LG, Swedberg K, Ducharme A, et al. on behalf of the CHARM Investigators. Atrial fibrillation and risk of clinical events in chronic heart failure with and without left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Results from the Candesartan in Heart failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) program. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;47:1997–2004.

371. Young-Xu Y, Jabbour S, Goldberg R, et al. Usefulness of statin drugs in protecting against atrial fibrillation in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 2003;92:1379–83.

372. Siu CW, Lau CP, Tse HF. Prevention of atrial fibrillation recurrence by statin therapy in patients with lone atrial fibrillation after successful cardioversion. Am J Cardiol 2003;92:1343–5.

373. Mozaffarian D, Psaty BM, Rimm EB, et al. Fish intake and risk of incident atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2004;110:368–73.


For citation:


Fuster V., Ryden L., Cannom D., Crijns H., Curtis A., Ellenbogen K., Halperin J., Le Heuzey J., Kay G., Lowe J., Olsson S., Prystowsky E., Tamargo J., Wann S. AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY, AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION AND EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF CARDIOLOGY GUIDELINES (2006) FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION (ENDING). Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology. 2007;3(3):84-111. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2007-3-3-84-111

Views: 720


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 1819-6446 (Print)
ISSN 2225-3653 (Online)