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Cognitive impairment in patients with arterial hypertension: a relationship with the level and daily blood pressure profile and pathogenetic mechanisms

https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2019-15-2-258-264

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Abstract

Arterial hypertension (HT) is one of the main recognized risk factors for the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. The results of most studies indicate that the presence of HT in elderly and senile people is associated with a decrease in cognitive functions and an increased risk of dementia in people of this age group, although some studies have identified the so-called "U-shaped curve”. The state of cognitive functions in middle-aged patients with HT has been studied to a much lesser extent, but it has been established that the presence of HT in middle age is associated with deterioration of cognitive functions and an increased risk of dementia in the elderly. In middle-aged hypertensive patients, cognitive impairment affected all cognitive domens, but to a greater extent - neurodynamic indicators of cognitive functions (speech activity, ability to concentrate, speed of cognitive processes). There are few data that levels of systolic blood pressure (BP) during the day, during wakefulness and sleep periods, insufficient night BP decrease, increased daily BP variability, and increased magnitude of the morning BP rise are interrelated with deterioration of the control functions/speed of cognitive processes. Pathogenetic aspects of the relationship of cognitive impairment and HT are diverse and include the hyperactivation of neuro-humoral systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathoadrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system dysfunction, reduction of cerebral perfusion, endothelial dysfunction. Anxiety-depressive disorders are of great importance in the occurrence of cognitive impairment in patients with HT, their interrelation is complex, dualistic, possibly due to a decrease in brain perfusion.

About the Authors

T. M. Ostroumova
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)
Russian Federation

Tatiana M. Ostroumova - MD, Assistant, Chair of Nervous Diseases and Neurosurgery, Sechenov University.

Trubetskaya ul. 8-2, Moscow, 119991



V. A. Parfenov
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)
Russian Federation

Vladimir A. Parfenov - MD, PhD, Professor, Head of Chair of Nervous Diseases and Neurosurgery, Sechenov University.

Trubetskaya ul. 8-2, Moscow, 119991



O. D. Ostroumova
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University); Russian Clinical and Research Center of Gerontology, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University
Russian Federation

Olga D. Ostroumova - MD, PhD, Professor, Chair of Clinical Pharmacology and Propaedeutics of Internal Medicine, Sechenov University; Head of Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Russian Gerontology Clinical Research Center, Pirogov RNRMU.

Trubetskaya ul. 8-2, Moscow, 119991; Pervaya Leonova ul. 1 6, Moscow, 1 29226



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For citation:


Ostroumova T.M., Parfenov V.A., Ostroumova O.D. Cognitive impairment in patients with arterial hypertension: a relationship with the level and daily blood pressure profile and pathogenetic mechanisms. Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology. 2019;15(2):258-264. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2019-15-2-258-264

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