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Mammographic Screening as a Tool for Cardiovascular Risk Assessing. Part 1. Breast Arterial Calcification: Pathomorphology, Prevalence and Risk Factors

https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2019-15-2-244-250

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Abstract

Breast arterial calcification (BAC) is a type of calcification of the media of the middle and small arteries (Menkeberg's calcification). This distinguishes it from calcification associated with the atherosclerotic process and localized in the intima of the vessel. There are data on the association of BAC with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This allows it to be considered as a new marker of cardiovascular risk in women. The purpose of the first part of the review is to analyze the current literature on the prevalence of BAC, factors related to its occurrence and the association of BAC with traditional CVD risk factors. The prevalence of BAC (data from cancer screening programs) is about 12.7%, and it increases with age to 50% in 80-year-old women. It is not an attribute of "healthy aging", but depends on race and ethnicity. There is a connection with reproductive function. The frequency of BAC increases with the number of children born, with breastfeeding, in menopause, and decreases during hormone replacement therapy. Smoking women have a BAC frequency 2 times less than non-smokers. Detection of BAC on mammograms is associated with conditions pathogenetically associated with CVD: an increase in the frequency of hyperlipidemia, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, a decrease in bone mass. There is a strong correlation of BAC with coronary calcium (indicator of coronary atherosclerosis). A statistically significant association of BAC with overweight, obesity, and smoking was not found, but there is a weak association with arterial hypertension. This may indicate an independent pathophysiological role of BAC in the development of vascular disorders and allows us to consider BAC as an independent marker for improving cardiovascular risk stratification in women. BAC is believed to be a marker of a more generalized trend towards the development of medial calcification in other vascular areas. This leads to a systemic increase in arterial stiffness and contributes to the development of CVD.

About the Authors

E. V. Bochkareva
National Medical Research Center for Preventive Medicine
Russian Federation

Elena V. Bochkareva - MD, PhD, Head of Laboratory of Drug Prevention in Primary Care, Department of Primary Prevention of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in the Healthcare System.

Petroverigsky per. 10, Moscow, 101990



I. V. Kim
National Medical Research Center for Preventive Medicine
Russian Federation

Irina V Kim - MD, PhD, Researcher, Laboratory of Drug Prevention in Primary Care, Department of Primary Prevention of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in the Healthcare System.

Petroverigsky per. 10, Moscow, 101990



E. K. Butina
National Medical Research Center for Preventive Medicine
Russian Federation

Ekaterina K. Butina - MD, PhD, Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Drug Prevention in Primary Care, Department of Primary Prevention of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in the Healthcare System.

Petroverigsky per. 10, Moscow, 101990



I. D. Stulin
A.I. Yevdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry
Russian Federation

Igor D. Stulin - MD, PhD, Professor, Head of Chair of Diseases of Nervous System.

Delegatskaya ul. 20/1, Moscow, 127423



S. A. Trukhanov
A.I. Yevdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry
Russian Federation

Sergey A. Trukhanov - MD, PhD, Assistant, Chair of Diseases of Nervous System.

Delegatskaya ul. 20/1, Moscow, 127423



B. A. Rudenko
National Medical Research Center for Preventive Medicine
Russian Federation

Boris A. Rudenko - MD, PhD, Head of Department of Innovative Methods of Cardiovascular and Other Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention, Diagnostics and Treatment.

Petroverigsky per. 10, Moscow, 101990



S. A. Boytsov
National Medical Research Centre of Cardiology
Russian Federation

Sergey A. Boytsov - MD, PhD, Professor, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, General Director.

Tretya Cherepkovskaya ul. 15А, Moscow, 121552



O. M. Drapkina
National Medical Research Center for Preventive Medicine
Russian Federation

Oxana M. Drapkina - MD, PhD, Professor, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director.

Petroverigsky per. 10, Moscow, 101990



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For citation:


Bochkareva E.V., Kim I.V., Butina E.K., Stulin I.D., Trukhanov S.A., Rudenko B.A., Boytsov S.A., Drapkina O.M. Mammographic Screening as a Tool for Cardiovascular Risk Assessing. Part 1. Breast Arterial Calcification: Pathomorphology, Prevalence and Risk Factors. Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology. 2019;15(2):244-250. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2019-15-2-244-250

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