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Role of Gut Microbiota in the Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome

https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2018-14-4-567-574

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Abstract

The role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic syndrome has attracted massive attention in the past decade. Accumulating evidence has revealed that the metabolic potential of gut microbiota can be identified as a contributing factor in the development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, obesity, diabetes mellitus. The gut-host interaction occurs through many pathways including trimethylamine-N-oxide pathway (TMAO), short-chain fatty acids and second bile acids pathways. TMAO (the hepatic oxidation product of the microbial metabolite of trimethylamine) enhances platelet hyperreactivity and thrombosis risk and predicts major adverse cardiovascular events. Short-chain fatty acids and second bile acids, which are produced with the help of microbiota, can modulate host lipid metabolism as well as carbohydrate metabolism through several receptors such as G-protein-coupled receptors 41,43, farnesoid X-receptor, Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5. This way microbiota can impact host lipid levels, processes of weight gain, insulin sensitivity. Besides these metabolism-dependent pathways, there are some other pathways, which link microbiota and the pathogenesis of CVD. For example, lipopolysaccharide, the major component of the outer bacterial membrane, causes metabolic endotoxemia and low-grade systemic inflammation and contribute this way to obesity and progression of heart failure and atherosclerosis. This review aims to illustrate the complex interplay between microbiota, their metabolites, and the development and progression of CVD and metabolic syndrome. It is also discussed how modulating of gut microbiota composition and function through diet, prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation can become a novel therapeutic and preventative target for CVD and metabolic syndrome. Many questions remain unresolved in this field and undoubtedly further studies are needed.

About the Authors

O. M. Drapkina
National Medical Research Center for Preventive Medicine
Russian Federation
Oxana M. Drapkina – MD, PhD, Professor, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director


O. E. Shirobokikh
National Medical Research Center for Preventive Medicine
Russian Federation
Olga E. Shirobokikh – MD, Resident


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For citation:


Drapkina O.M., Shirobokikh O.E. Role of Gut Microbiota in the Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Diseases and Metabolic Syndrome. Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology. 2018;14(4):567-574. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2018-14-4-567-574

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