Preview

Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology

Advanced search

SMOKING AS A RISK FACTOR FOR CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES: PREVALENCE, IMPACT ON PROGNOSIS, POSSIBLE SMOKING CESSATION STRATEGIES AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS. Part 2. Advantages of quitting smoking. Strategies to quit smoking

https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2018-14-1-111-121

Full Text:

Abstract

The immediate and remote benefits of smoking cessation are considered. Within one year after quitting smoking the ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk will be 2 folds lower than the risk in smoking patient. Within 15 years the IHD risk declines to non-smoking population level. After 5-15 years after quitting smoking the risk of stroke also declines to non-smoker risk. Smoking cessation prior to cardio surgical intervention leads to reduction of complications incidence by 41%. Smoking cessation significantly reduces the risk of developing stable and unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, peripheral arterial diseases, abdominal aortic aneurysm at any age, in both sexes in comparison to patients who continue to smoke. Smoking cessation is the most cost-effective strategy of cardiovascular disease prevention. Today, the most effective smoking cessation strategy is the identification of smokers and continuous advice on smoking cessation, and offer of the appropriate medication, primarily varenicline. The article contains data from a number of studies showing that varenicline is an effective and safe drug for tobacco dependence treatment, in particular, in patients with acute and chronic cardiovascular disease. 

About the Authors

O. D. Ostroumova
A.I. Evdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry; I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University
Russian Federation

Olga D. Ostroumova – MD, PhD, Professor, Chair of Faculty Therapy and Occupational Diseases, A.I. Evdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry; Chair of Clinical Pharmacology and Propaedeutics of Internal Diseases, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University 

Delegatskaya ul. 20-1, Moscow, 127473



I. I. Kopchjonov
A.I. Evdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry
Russian Federation

Ivan I. Kopchjonov – MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Chair of Faculty Therapy and Occupational Diseases 

Delegatskaya ul. 20-1, Moscow, 127473



T. F. Guseva
A.I. Evdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry
Russian Federation

Tatyana F. Guseva – MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Chair of Faculty Therapy and Occupational Diseases 

Delegatskaya ul. 20-1, Moscow, 127473



References

1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking 50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014. Available at: https://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/50-years-of-progress/full-report.pdf. Accessed Jan 22, 2018.

2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: What It Means to You. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2010/con-sumer_booklet/pdfs/consumer.pdf. Accessed Jan 22, 2018.

3. Mahmud A, Feely J. Effect of Smoking on Arterial Stiffness and Pulse Pressure Amplification. Hypertension. 2003;41(1):183-7. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000047464.66901.60.

4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 90-8416. 1990. Available at: https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/access/nnbbcv.pdf. Accessed Jan 22, 2018.

5. Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors. BMJ. 2004;328(7455):1519-27. doi: 10.1136/bmj.38142.554479.AE.

6. Unal B, Critchley JA, Capewell S. Modelling the decline in coronary heart disease deaths in England and Wales, 1981-2000: comparing contributions from primary prevention and secondary prevention. BMJ. 2005;331:614-27. doi:10.1136/bmj.38561.633345.8F

7. Pujades-Rodriguez M, George J, Shah AD, et al. Heterogeneous associations between smoking and a wide range of initial presentations of cardiovascular disease in 1 937 360 people in England: lifetime risks and implications for risk prediction. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2015;44(1):129-41. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyu218.

8. Tolstrup JS, Hvidtfeldt UA, Flachs EM, et al. Smoking and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults. Am J Public Health. 2014;104:96-102. doi:10.2105/AJPH. 2012.301091.

9. Rea ThD, Heckbert SR, Kaplan RC, et al. Smoking Status and Risk for Recurrent Coronary Events after Myocardial Infarction. Ann Intern Med. 2002;137:494-500. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-137-6200209170-00009.

10. Armstrong EJ, Wu J, Singh GD, et al. Smoking cessation is associated with decreased mortality and improved amputation-free survival among patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease. J VascSurg. 2014;60:1565-71. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2014.08.064.

11. Turan A., Mascha E.J., Roberman D., et al. Smoking and perioperative outcomes. Anesthesiology. 2011;114(4):837-46. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e318210f560.

12. Mills E., Eyawo O., Lockhart I., et al. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: а systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011;124(2):144-54. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed. 2010.09.013.

13. NHS stop smoking services and monitoring guidance 2010/11. Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_109696. Checked by Jan 21, 2018.

14. Puzyrev D. Year with an anti-smoking law: how Russia refuses to smoke. Available at: http://www.rbc.ru/business/17/10/2014/543bd587cbb20f6ce4a09fed. Checked by Jan 22, 2018. (In Russ.) [Пузырев Д. Год с антитабачным законом: как Россия отказывается от курения. Доступно на: http://www.rbc.ru/business/17/10/2014/543bd587cbb20f6ce4a09fed. Проверено 22.01.2018].

15. The fate of smokers in Russia. Press Release №2643. VTsIOM. Available at: https://wciom.ru/ index.php?id=236&uid=114927. Checked by Jan 22, 2018. (In Russ.) [Судьба курильщиков в России. Пресс-выпуск №2643. ВЦИОМ. Доступно на: https://wciom.ru/index.php? id=236&uid=114927. Проверено 22.01.2018].

16. Pronina T. Smoking in Russia and the World: What the Ministry of Health wants to save us from. Available at: https://health.mail.ru/news/kak_kuryat_v_rossii_i_v_mire/. Checked by Jan 22, 2018. (In Russ.) [Пронина Т. Курение в России и мире: от чего нас хочет спасти Минздрав. Доступно на: https://health.mail.ru/news/kak_kuryat_v_rossii_i_v_mire/. Проверено 22.01.2018]

17. The share of smoking Russians reached a seven-year low. RIA News. Available at: https://ria.ru/society/20160531/1441120952.html. Checked by Jan 22, 2018. (In Russ.) [Доля курящих россиян достигла семилетнего минимума. РИА Новости. Доступно на: https://ria.ru/society/20160531/1441120952.html. Проверено 22.01.2018].

18. The number of smokers in Russia decreased by 10 million people. Available at: https://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/91309/. Checked by Jan 22, 2018. (In Russ.) [Число курильщиков в России сократилось на 10 млн человек. Доступно на: https://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/91309/. Проверено 22.01.2018]

19. Piepoli MF, Hoes AW, Agewall S, et al.; Authors/Task Force Members. 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts). Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). Eur Heart J. 2016;37(29):2315-81. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw106.

20. Cedillo S, Sicras-Mainar A, JimОnez-Ruiz CA, et al. Budgetary Impact Analysis of Reimbursement Varenicline for the Smoking-Cessation Treatment in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus: A National Health System Perspective. Eur Addict Res. 2017;23(1):7-18. doi: 10.1159/000449098.

21. Foulds J, Burke M, Williams JM, Ziedonis DM. Advances in pharmacotherapy for tobacco dependence. Expert Opin Emerge Drugs. 2004;9(1):39-53. doi: 10.1517/eoed.9.1.39.32951.

22. Hughes JR. New treatments for smoking cessation. CA Cancer J Clin. 2000;50(3):143-51. doi: 10.3322/canjclin.50.3.143.

23. WHO European Strategy for Smoking Cessation Policy Revision (2004). Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/_data/assets/pdf_file/0017/68111/E80056.pdf. Checked by Jan 22, 2018]

24. Jarvis MJ. Why people smoke. BMJ. 2004;328:277-9. doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7434.277

25. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, IV-TR. Washington, DC: APA; 2006.

26. West R, Shiffman S. Fast Facts: Smoking Cessation, 3rd ed. Oxford, United Kingdom: Health Press Limited; 2016.

27. Suissa K, Larivière J, Eisenberg MJ, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Smoking Cessation Interventions in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2017;10(1):pii: e002458. doi: 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.115.002458.

28. Cahill K, Stevens S, Perera R, Lancaster T. Pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(5):CD009329. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009329.pub2.

29. Bolin K, Wilson K, Benhaddi H, et al. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline compared with nicotine patches for smoking cessation: results from four European countries. EurJ Public Health. 2009;19:650-4. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckp075.

30. Gerhard-Herman MD, Gornik HL, Barrett C, et al. 2016 AHA/ACC Guideline on the Management of Patients With Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69(11):e71-e126. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.11.007.

31. Bushnell C, Boden-Albala B, Braun LT, et al. Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014;45(12):3754-832. doi: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000046.

32. Cahill K, Stead LF, Lancaster T. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;4:CD006103. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006103.pub6

33. Coe J.W., Brooks P.R., Vetelino M.G., et al. Varenicline: an alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist for smoking cessation. J Med Chem. 2005;48(10):3474-7. doi:10.1021/jm050069n.

34. Kukes VG, Marinin VF, Gavrysyuk EV. Varenicline is a new generation drug for the treatment of tobacco dependence. Klinicheskaja Farmakologija i Terapija. 2009;18(3):66-71. (In Russ.) [Кукес В.Г., Маринин В.Ф., Гаврисюк Е.В. Варениклин – препарат нового поколения для лечения табачной зависимости. Клиническая Фармакология и Терапия. 2009;18(3):66-71].

35. Obach R., Reed-Hagen A., Krueger S., et al. Metabolism and disposition of varenicline, a selective α4β2 acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, in vivo and in vitro. Drug Metab. Dispos. 2006;34:12130. doi:10.1124/dmd.105.006767.

36. Rollema H, Coe JW, Chambers LK, et al. Rationale, pharmacology and clinical efficacy of partial agonists of alpha4beta2 nACh receptors for smoking cessation. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2007;28(7):316-25. doi: 10.1016/j.tips.2007.05.003.

37. Anthenelli RM, Benowitz NL, West R, et al. Neuropsychiatric safety and efficacy of varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine patch in smokers with and without psychiatric disorders (EAGLES): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lancet, 2016;387(10037):2507-20. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30272-0.

38. Thomas KH, Martin RM, Knipe DW, et al. Risk of neuropsychiatric adverse events associated with varenicline: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2015;350:h1109. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h1109.

39. Study To Evaluate Cardiac Assessments Following Different Treatments Of Smoking Cessation Medications In Subjects With And Without Psychiatric Disorders. (CATS). Available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT01574703. Checked by Jan 22, 2018.

40. Rigotti N.A., Pipe A.L., Benowitz N.L., et al. Efficacy and safety of varenicline for smoking cessation in patients with cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial. Circulation. 2010;121(2):221-9. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.869008.

41. Eisenberg M.J., Windle S.B., Roy N., et al, for the EVITA Investigators. Varenicline for smoking cessation in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndrome. Circulation. 2016;133(1):21-30. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.019634.

42. Svanström H., Pasternak B., Hviid A. Use varenicline for smoking cessation and risk of serious cardiovascular events: nationalwide cohort study. BMJ. 2012;345:e7176. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e7176

43. Prochaska J.J., Hilton J.F. Risk of cardiovascular serious adverse events associated with varenicline use for tobacco cessation: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2012;344:e2856. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e2856.


For citation:


Ostroumova O.D., Kopchjonov I.I., Guseva T.F. SMOKING AS A RISK FACTOR FOR CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES: PREVALENCE, IMPACT ON PROGNOSIS, POSSIBLE SMOKING CESSATION STRATEGIES AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS. Part 2. Advantages of quitting smoking. Strategies to quit smoking. Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology. 2018;14(1):111-121. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2018-14-1-111-121

Views: 576


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 1819-6446 (Print)
ISSN 2225-3653 (Online)