Preview

Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology

Advanced search

HEART RATE AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH THE MAIN RISK FACTORS IN THE POPULATION OF MEN AND WOMEN OF WORKING AGE

https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2017-13-6-819-826

Full Text:

Abstract

Aim. To study the association of heart rate (HR) with the health parameters obtained in the ESSE-RF study.

Material and methods. The data of the multicenter epidemiological study of ESSE-RF were used in the work. 8,343 men and 13,531 women aged 25-64 years were examined. The response to the survey was about 80%. The analysis is performed depending on the elevated heart rate. Education, place of residence, region, lipid profile, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and glucose, history of diabetes, anxiety and depression, elevated blood pressure were analyzed as factors possibly associated with increased heart rate. Epidemiological diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) was established using the Rose questionnaire, an electrocardiogram analysis, followed by the Minnesota code coding.

Results. Almost every fifth inhabitant had a pulse rate of more than 80 beats/min. No significant difference was found between the sexes. The increase in heart rate in men, starting in the age group 25-34 years to 45-54, and in women only up to 35-44 years with subsequent reduction in men and women was found. The prevalence of increased heart rate varies from region to region. The highest heart rate in men is recorded in Orenburg (33.1%), Ossetia (Alania) and Volgograd (29.7% and 27.6%, respectively), in women – in Vladivostok (37.4%), and the lowest heart rate in both gender groups

– in Samara (9.4% for men and 8.1% for women). Increase in heart rate in men with secondary education [odds ratio (OR) 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.40], smokers and quitters (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.63-2.27), who did not drink alcohol during the last year (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.021.37), living in rural areas (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.42), who are obese (OR 1.27, 95% CI, 1.101.45), having elevated blood pressure (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.88-2.67), elevated levels of triglycerides, glucose and CRP was found after correction for age, region and all indicators included in the analysis (multidimensional model). The heart rate >80 beats/min was found significantly less often in people with history of myocardial infarction. A different model was found in women, it included, like in men, living in the village, elevated levels of blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose and CRP, but not education, smoking and alcohol consumption, obesity. Anxiety, low level of high-density lipoproteins and history of diabetes mellitus were also in the model in women.

Сonclusion. Significant associations between increased heart rate and metabolic risk factors, inflammation and residence in the village are found.

About the Authors

S. А. Shalnov
National Medical Research Center for Preventive Medicine
Russian Federation

Svetlana A. Shalnova – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of Department of Epidemiology of Chronic Non-Сommunicable Diseases 

. Petroverigsky per. 10, Moscow, 101990 



A. D. Deev
National Medical Research Center for Preventive Medicine
Russian Federation

Alexander D. Deev – PhD (in Physics and Mathematics), Head of Laboratory of Biostatistics 

Petroverigsky per. 10, Moscow, 101990 



O. A. Belova
Ivanovo Regional Cardiology Clinic
Russian Federation

Olga A. Belova – Deputy Chief Doctor 

Sheremetevsky prospect 22, Ivanovo, 153012 



Yu. I. Grinshtein
Krasnoyarsk State Medical University named after Professor V.F. Voyno-Yasenetsky
Russian Federation

Yury I. Grinshtein – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of Chair of Therapy, Institute of Postgraduate Education 

Partizana Zheleznyaka ul. 1, Krasnoyarsk, 660022 



D. V. Duplyakov
Samara Region Clinical Cardiology Hospital
Russian Federation

Dmitry V. Duplyakov – MD, PhD, Professor, Deputy Chief Doctor 

Aerodromnaya ul. 43, Samara, 123456 



A. Yu. Efanov
Tyumen State Medical University
Russian Federation

Alexey Yu. Efanov – MD, PhD, Assistant, Chair of Hospital Therapy 

Odesskaya ul. 54, Tyumen, 625023 



E. V. Indukaeva
Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases
Russian Federation

Elena V. Indukaeva – MD, PhD, Senior Researcher, Laboratory of Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases 

Sosnoviy bulvar 6, Kemerovo, 650002 



N. V. Kulakova
Pacific State Medical University
Russian Federation

Natalia V. Kulakova – MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Chair of Therapy and Instrumental Diagnostics 

Ostryakova prospect 2, Vladivostok, 690002 



R. A. Libis
Orenburg State Medical University
Russian Federation

Roman A. Libis – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of Chair of Hospital Therapy with Course of Clinical Pharmacology 

Sovetskaya ul. 6, Orenburg, 123457 



S. V. Nedogoda
Volgograd State Medical University
Russian Federation

Sergey V. Nedogoda – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of Chair of Therapy and Endocrinology, Vice-Chancellor for Clinical Programs 

Pavshikh Bortsov pl. 1, Volgograd, 400131 



O. P. Rotar
Almazov National Medical Research Centre
Russian Federation

Oksana P. Rotar – MD, PhD, Head of Laboratory of Epidemiology of Hypertension 

Akkuratova ul. 2, St. Petersburg, 197341 



G. V. Tolparov
North Ossetia State Medical Academy
Russian Federation

Georgiy V. Tolparov – MD, Post-Graduate Student, Chair of Internal Medicine 

Pushkinskaya ul. 40, Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia-Alania Republic, 362019



I. A. Trubacheva
Research Institute for Cardiology, Tomsk National Research Medical Center
Russian Federation

Irina A. Trubacheva – MD, PhD, Head of Department of Population Cardiology with Group of Scientific and Medical Information, Patenting and International Relations 

Kievskaya ul. 111a, Tomsk, 634012 



T. M. Chernykh
Voronezh State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko
Russian Federation

Tatyana M. Chernykh – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of Chair of Hospital Therapy and Endocrinology 

Studencheskaya ul. 10, Voronezh, 394005



A. A. Shabunova
Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Alexandra A. Shabunova – PhD (in Economics), Professor, Deputy Director 

Gorkogo ul. 56a, Vologda, 160014 



S. A. Boytsov
National Medical Research Center for Cardiology
Russian Federation

Sergey A. Boytsov – MD, PhD, Professor, Corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director 

Tretya Cherepkovskaya ul. 15a, Moscow, 121552 



References

1. Levine H. Rest heart rate and life expectancy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;30:1104-06. Doi: 0.1016/S0735-1097(97)00246-5.

2. Custodis F., Schirmer S.H., BaumhКkel M., et al. Vascular pathophysiology in response to increased heart rate. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56:1973-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.09.014.

3. Kannel W.B., Kannel C., Paffenbarger Jr R.S., Cupples L.A. Heart rate and cardiovascular mortality: the Framingham Study. Am Heart J. 1987;113:1489-94.

4. Gillman M.W., Kannel W.B., Belanger A., D’Agostino R.B. Influence of heart rate onmortality among persons with hypertension: the Framingham Study. Am Heart J. 1993;125:1148-54.

5. Diaz A., Bourassa M.G., Guertin M.C., Tardif J.C. Long-term prognostic value of restingheart rate in patients with suspected or proven coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J. 2005;26:967-74. Doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehi190.

6. Bоhm M., Swedberg K., Komajda M., et al. Heart rate as a risk factor in chronic heart failure (SHIFT): the association between heart rate and outcomes in a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376:886-94. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61259-7.

7. Reil J.C., Custodis F., Swedberg K., et al. Heart rate reduction in cardiovascular disease and therapy. Clin Res Cardiol. 2011;100:11-9. DOI: 10.1007/s00392-010-0207-x.

8. Dzau V., Braunwald E. Resolved and unresolved issues in the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease: a workshop consensus statement. Am Heart J. 1991;121:1244-63.

9. Fox K., Borer J.S., Camm A.J., et al. Resting heart rate in cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:823-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.04.079

10. Shaper A., Wannamethee G., Macfarlane P., Walker M. Heart rate, ischaemic heart disease and sudden death in middle-aged British men. Br Heart J. 1993;70:49-55.

11. Fox K., Ford I., Steg P.G., et al. Heart rate as a prognostic risk factor in patients with coronary artery disease and left-ventricular systolic dysfunction (BEAUTIFUL): a subgroup analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;372:817-21. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61171-X.

12. Mareev V.Yu., Danielyan M.Yu, Belenkov Yu.N. Effect of therapy on prognosis and survival of patients with chronic heart failure. Russkij Medicinskij Zhurnal. 1999;2:9. (In Russ.) [Мареев В.Ю., Даниелян М.О., Беленков Ю.Н. Влияние терапии на прогноз и выживаемость больных с хронической сердечной недостаточностью. Русский Медицинский Журнал. 1999;2:9].

13. Karpov Yu.A., Deev AD. The program ALTERNATIVA investigationof antianginal efficacy and tolerability of Coraxan (ivabradine) and assessment of quality of life in patients with stable angina: results of an epidemiology stage. Kardiologiia. 2008;5:30-35. (In Russ.). [Карпов Ю.А., Деев А.Д. Программа АЛЬТЕРНАТИВА – исследование антиангинальной активности и переносимости кораксана (ивабрадина) и оценка качества жизни пациентов со стабильной стенокардией: результаты эпидемиологического этапа. Кардиология. 2008;5:30-35].

14. Shalnova S.A., Oganov R.G., Steg Ph.G., Ford I. Participants of Clarify registry. Coronary artery disease in Russia. Today's reality evidenced by international Clarify registry. Kardiologiia. 2013;8:53:28-33. (In Russ.). [Шальнова С.А., Оганов Р.Г., Стэг Ф.Г., Форд Й. от имени участников регистра CLARIFY. Ишемическая болезнь сердца. Современная реальность по данным всемирного регистра CLARIFY. Кардиология. 2013;8:53:28-33].

15. Custodis F., Shirmer S.H., Baumhakel M. et al. Vascular pathophysiology in response to increased heart rate. Am J Cardiol. 2011;56:1983-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.09.014

16. Palatini P. Role of Elevated Heart Rate in the Development of Cardiovascular Disease in Hypertension. Hypertension. 2011;58:745-50. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.173104

17. Julius S., Jamerson K. Sympathetics, insulin resistance and coronary risk in hypertension: the ‘chickenand-egg’ question. J Hypertens. 1994;12: 495-502.

18. Brunner E.J., Hemingway H., Walker B.R., et al. Adrenocortical, autonomic, and inflammatory causes of the metabolic syndrome: nested case-control study. Circulation. 2002;106:2659-65. Doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000038364.26310.BD

19. Mancia G., Bombelli M., Corrao G., et al. Metabolic syndrome in the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate E Loro Associazioni (PAMELA) Study. Hypertension. 2007;49:40-7. DOI: 10.1161/01.HYP. 0000251933.22091.24

20. Mancia G., Bousquet P., Elghozi J.L., et al. The sympathetic nervous system and the metabolic syndrome. J Hypertens. 2007;25:909-20. DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e328048d004

21. Piwońska A., Piotrowski W., Broda G., et al. The relationship between resting heart rate and atherosclerosis risk factors. Kardiol Pol. 2008;66:10:1069-75.

22. Shigetoh Y., Adachi H., Yamagishi S., et al. Rate May Predispose to Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus: 20Year Prospective Study in a General Population Am J Hypertens 2009;22:151-55. doi: 10.1038/ajh.2008.331.

23. Orso F., Baldasseroni S., Maggioni A.P. Heart rate in coronary syndromes and heart failure. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;52:38-45. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2009.05.006.

24. Palatini P, Julius S. Elevated heart rate: a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2004;26:637-44.

25. Shalnova S.A., Deev A.D., Kapustina A.V., et al. Body weight and its contribution to mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes among the Russian population. Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention. 2014;13(1):44-8. (In Russ.) [Шальнова С.А., Деев А.Д., Капустина А.В., и др. Масса тела и ее вклад в смертность от сердечнососудистых заболеваний и всех причин среди российского населения. Кардиоваскулярная Терапия и Профилактика. 2014;13(1):44-8]


For citation:


Shalnov S.А., Deev A.D., Belova O.A., Grinshtein Y.I., Duplyakov D.V., Efanov A.Y., Indukaeva E.V., Kulakova N.V., Libis R.A., Nedogoda S.V., Rotar O.P., Tolparov G.V., Trubacheva I.A., Chernykh T.M., Shabunova A.A., Boytsov S.A. HEART RATE AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH THE MAIN RISK FACTORS IN THE POPULATION OF MEN AND WOMEN OF WORKING AGE. Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology. 2017;13(6):819-826. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.20996/1819-6446-2017-13-6-819-826

Views: 215


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 1819-6446 (Print)
ISSN 2225-3653 (Online)