Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology

Advanced search


Full Text:


Aim. To study the relationship of individual cardiovascular risk factors with arterial stiffness and subclinical atherosclerosis in young men.

Material and methods. The study is part of a 32-year prospective cohort monitoring of males, beginning with childhood (11-12 years). The study-included 303 (30.1%) representatives of the initial population sample aged 41-44 who underwent an outpatient examination at the State Research-Center for Preventive Medicine in 2015-2016. The examination included a survey by a standard questionnaire, measurement of anthropometric parameters, blood pressure (BP), pulse counting. Biochemical assays were carried out according to standard laboratory procedures. Applanation tonometry-was used to measure stiffness of the arterial wall. Intima-media thickness (IMT) and subclinical atherosclerosis signs were determined in both left and right carotid arteries by ultrasound scanning.

Results. Arterial stiffness and central pressure were significantly higher in the group with hypertension (HT). Risk of HT development depended on HT-presence in mother and did not depend on HT in father. HT was associated with obesity (79.4% vs 44.3%; p<0.001), especially of abdominal type and elevated triglycerides (1.3±0.9 vs 1.8±1.1 mmol/l; p<0.05), this indirectly reflected nutritional disorder and development of metabolic syndrome. The analysis of arterial stiffness parameters showed positive correlation with mean systolic (r=0.256) and diastolic (r=0.228) BP in the brachial artery and also with heart rate (r=0.133). A statistically significant positive correlation of central pressure in the aorta and pulse BP with indices of arterial-stiffness was noted. When comparing arterial stiffness and duplex scans, a correlation of mean IMT with the augmentation index (r=0.131) and augmentation BP (r=0.125) was obtained, but no correlation between IMT and pulse wave velocity was found. Correlation of vascular rigidity with total cholesterol level was also noted (r=0.121).

Conclusion. The arterial stiffness was closely related to HT and already developed in early stages, in a fairly young age. Arterial stiffness in men was not associated with dyslipidemia and diabetes presence. Interrelation of arterial stiffness and degree of early atherosclerotic vascular lesions was ambiguous.

About the Authors

O. Yu. Isaykina
State Research Center for Preventive Medicine
Russian Federation
Olesya Yu. Isaykina – MD, PhD, Senior Researcher, Laboratory-of Outpatient Diagnostic Methods in the Prevention of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases

V. B. Rozanov
State Research Center for Preventive Medicine; I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University
Russian Federation

Vyatcheslav B. Rozanov – MD, PhD, Leading Researcher, Laboratory of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention in Children and Adolescents, State Research Center for Preventive Medicine; Leading Specialist, Department of Public Health, Institute for Leadership and Healthcare Management,I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University

E. Yu. Zvolinskaya
State Research Center for Preventive Medicine
Russian Federation
Ekaterina Yu. Zvolinskaya – MD, PhD, Leading Researcher, Laboratory of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention in Children and Adolescents

H. S. Pugoeva
State Research Center for Preventive Medicine
Russian Federation
Hava S. Pugoeva – MD, PhD, Junior Researcher, Laboratory of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention in Children and Adolescents

A. A. Alexandrov
State Research Center for Preventive Medicine
Russian Federation
Alexandr A. Alexandrov – MD, PhD, Professor, Head of Laboratory of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention in Children and Adolescents, Department of Primary Prevention of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in the Healthcare System


1. Boytsov S.A. Noncommunicable diseases: stepping up the fight. Bulletin of World Health Organization. 2015;93(1):9-10.

2. Demographic Yearbook of Russia 2015. Statistical Yearbook. Moscow: Rosstat 2015. (In Russ.) [Демографический ежегодник России. 2015. Статистический сборник. Москва: Росстат 2015].

3. Shalnova S.A., Deev A.D., Balanova Y.A., Boytsov S.A. Trends of arterial hypertension in Russia: Is there a progress in prescription of antihypertensive therapies? (results of studies in 1993-2013). Serdtse. 2015;14(6):389-96. (In Russ.) [Шальнова С.А., Деев А.Д., Баланова Ю.А., Бойцов С.А. Динамика артериальной гипертонии в России: есть ли прогресс в назначении антигипертензивной терапии? (результаты исследований 1993-2013 гг.). Сердце. 2015;14(6):389-96].

4. Townsend R.R., Wilkinson I.B., Schiffrin E.L. et al. American Heart Association Council on Hypertension.-Recommendations for Improving and Standardizing Vascular Research on Arterial Stiffness. A Scientific-Statement from the American Heart Association. J Hypertension. 2015;66(3):698-722.

5. Cecelja М., Chowienczyk Р. Role of arterial stiffness in cardiovascular disease. J R Soc Med Cardiovasc Dis. 2012;1:11.

6. Laurent S., Katsahian S., Fassot C., et al. Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of fatal stroke in essential hypertension. Stroke. 2003;34:1203-6.

7. O’Rourke M.F., Safar M.E., Nichols W.W. Pulse wave form analysis and arterial stiffness: realism can replace evangelism and scepticism [letter]. J Hypertens. 2004;22:1633-4.

8. Saji N, et al. Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Arterial Stiffness: Tsunami Effect in the Brain? Pulse (Basel). 2016:3(3-4);182-9.

9. Bruno R.M., Cartoni G., Stea F., et all. Carotid and aortic stiffness in essential hypertension and their relation with target organ damage: the CATOD study. J Hypertens. 2016;10:310-18.

10. Sedaghat S., Mattace-Raso F.U., Hoorn E.J. et all. Arterial Stiffness and Decline in Kidney Function. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;10(12):2190-7.

11. Messas E., et al. Arterial wall elasticity: state of the art and future prospects. Diagn Interv Imaging. 2013;94(5):561-9.

12. Husmann M., et al. Markers of arterial stiffness in peripheral arterial disease. Vasa. 2015;44(5): 341-8.

13. Sporisevic L., Krzelj V., Bajraktarevic A., Jahic E. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk in school children . Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2009;9(3):182–6.

14. Kyvelou S.M., Vyssoulis G.P., Karpanou E.A., et al. Arterial hypertension parental burden affects arterial stiffness and wave reflection to the aorta in young offsprings. Int J Cardiol. 2010;144:156-60.

15. Craig C.L., Marshall A.L., Sjostrom M., et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(8):1381-95.

16. Guidelines for Data Processing and Analysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) – Short and Long Forms - 2005. Available at: [Checked by 23 April 2016].

17. Van Bortel L.M., Laurent S., Boutouyrie P., et al. Expert consensus document on the measurement of aortic stiffness in daily practice using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. J Hypertens. 2012;30: 445-8.

18. Xu M., He Y., Geng J., et al. The mitochondrial tRNAMet/tRNAGlnA4401G and tRNACysG5821A-mutations may be associated with hypertension in two Han Chinese families. Yi Chuan. 2014;36:-127-34.

19. Zhu C., Lui Y., Gao J., et al. Mitochondrial DNA mutation associated with hypertension in tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Gln) genes. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2014;31:619-22.

20. Liu Y., Li Y., Wang X., et al. Mitochondrial tRNA mutations in Chinese hypertensive individuals. Mitochondrion. 2016;26(28):1-7.

21. Buĭkin S.V., Golubenko M.V., Puzyrev V.P. "Genes for mitochondria" in arterial hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2010;44(1):28-32. (In Russ.) [Буйкин С.В., Голубенко М.В., Пузырев В.П. Участие "митохондриальных генов" в формировании гипертрофии левого желудочка при артериальной гипертонии. Молекулярная Биология. 2010;44(1):28-32].

22. Nicolson G.L. Metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial function: molecular replacement and antioxidant-supplements to prevent membrane peroxidation and restore mitochondrial function. J Cell Biochem.-2007;15;100(6):1352-69.

23. Bonomini F., Rodella L.F., Rezzani R. Metabolic syndrome, aging and involvement of oxidative stress. Aging Dis. 2015;10;6(2):109-20.

24. Belcaro G., Nicolaides A.N., Ramaswami G., et al. Carotid and femoral ultrasound morphology screening-and cardiovascular events in low risk subjects: a 10-year follow-up study (the CAFES-CAVE study-(1)). Atherosclerosis. 2001;156(2):379-87.

25. Eleid M.F., Lester S.J., Wiedenbeck T.L., et al. Carotid ultrasound identifies high risk subclinical atherosclerosis in adults with low Framingham risk scores. J Am Soc Echocardiog. 2010;23(8):802-8.

26. Bots M.L., Hoes A.W., Koudstaal P.J., et al. Common carotid intima–media thickness and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction. The Rotterdam Study. Circulation. 1997;96:1432-7.

27. Van Popele N.M., Mattace-Raso F.U., Vliegenthart R., et al. Aortic stiffness is associated with atherosclerosis-of the coronary arteries in older adults: the Rotterdam Study. J Hypertens. 2006;24:-2371-6.

28. Laurent P., Albaladejo P., Blacher J., et al. Heart rate and pulse pressure amplification in hypertensive subjects. Am J Hypertens. 2003;16:363-370.

29. Boutouyrie P., Laurent .S, Benetos A., et al. Opposite effects of ageing on distal and proximal large arteries in hypertensives. J Hypertens. 1992;10:87-92.

30. Roman M.J., Okin P.M., Kizer J.R., et al. Relations of central and brachial blood pressure to left ventricular hypertrophy and geometry: the Strong Heart Study. J Hypertension. 2010;28:384-8.

31. Tsuchikura S., Shoji T., Kimoto E. et al. Brachialankle pulse wave velocity as an index of central arterial stiffness. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2010;17(6):658-65.

32. Mitchell G.F., Hwang S.J., Vasan R.S. et al. Arterial stiffness and cardiovascular events: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2010;121(4):505-11.

33. London G.M., Asmar R.G., O’Rourke M.F., Safar M.E., REASON Project Investigators: Mechanisms(-s) of selective systolic blood pressure reduction after a low-dose combination of perindoprill/-indapamide in hypertensive subjects: comparison with atenolol. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43:-92-9.

34. Poulter N.R., Wedel B., Dahlцf B., et al. Role of blood pressure and other variables in the differential-cardiovascular event rates noted in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial - Blood Pressure-Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA). Lancet. 2005;366:907-13.

For citation:

Isaykina O.Y., Rozanov V.B., Zvolinskaya E.Y., Pugoeva H.S., Alexandrov A.A. ARTERIAL STIFFNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN YOUNG MEN (41-44 YEARS). Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology. 2017;13(3):290-300. (In Russ.)

Views: 260

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 1819-6446 (Print)
ISSN 2225-3653 (Online)