Preview

Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology

Advanced search

РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ ПО ДИАГНОСТИКЕ И ЛЕЧЕНИЮ ФИБРИЛЛЯЦИИ ПРЕДСЕРДИЙ

Full Text:

References

1. Stewart S, Hart CL, Hole DJ, McMurray JJ. Population prevalence, incidence, and predictors of atrial fibrillation in the Renfrew/Paisley study. Heart 2001;86:516–521.

2. Go AS, Hylek EM, Phillips KA, Chang Y, Henault LE, Selby JV, Singer DE. Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the AnTicoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study. JAMA 2001;285:2370–2375.

3. Kirchhof P, Auricchio A, Bax J, Crijns H, Camm J, Diener HC, Goette A, Hindricks G, Hohn-loser S, Kappenberger L, Kuck KH, Lip GY, Olsson B, Meinertz T, Priori S, Ravens U, Steinbeck G, Svernhage E, Tijssen J, Vincent A, Breithardt G. Outcome parameters for trials in atrial fibrillation: executive summary. Recommendations from a consensus conference organized by the German Atrial Fibrillation Competence NETwork (AFNET) and the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA). Eur Heart J 2007;28:2803–2817.

4. Lip GY, Golding DJ, Nazir M, Beevers DG, Child DL, Fletcher RI. A survey of atrial fibrillation in general practice: the West Birmingham Atrial Fibrillation Project. Br J Gen Pract 1997;47:285–289.

5. Miyasaka Y, Barnes ME, Gersh BJ, Cha SS, Bailey KR, Abhayaratna WP, Seward JB, Tsang TS. Secular trends in incidence of atrial fibrillation in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1980 to 2000, and implications on the projections for future prevalence. Circulation 2006;114:119–125.

6. Heeringa J, van der Kuip DA, Hofman A, Kors JA, van Herpen G, Stricker BH, Stijnen T, Lip GY, Witteman JC. Prevalence, incidence and lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation: the Rotterdam study. Eur Heart J 2006;27:949–953.

7. Naccarelli GV, Varker H, Lin J, Schulman KL. Increasing prevalence of atrial fibrillation and flutter in the United States. Am J Cardiol 2009;104:1534–1539.

8. Lloyd-Jones DM, Wang TJ, Leip EP, Larson MG, Levy D, Vasan RS, D’Agostino RB, Massaro JM, Beiser A, Wolf PA, Benjamin EJ. Lifetime risk for development of atrial fibrillation: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2004;110:1042–1046.

9. Stewart S, Hart CL, Hole DJ, McMurray JJ. A population-based study of the longterm risks associated with atrial fibrillation: 20-year follow-up of the Renfrew/Paisley study. Am J Med 2002;113:359–364.

10. Hylek EM, Go AS, Chang Y, Jensvold NG, Henault LE, Selby JV, Singer DE. Effect of intensity of oral anticoagulation on stroke severity and mortality in atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1019–1026.

11. Knecht S, Oelschlager C, Duning T, Lohmann H, Albers J, Stehling C, HeindelW, Breithardt G, Berger K, Ringelstein EB, Kirchhof P, Wersching H. Atrial fibrillation in stroke-free patients is associated with memory impairment and hippocampal atrophy. Eur Heart J 2008;29 2125–2132.

12. Friberg L, Hammar N, Rosenqvist M. Stroke in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: report from the Stockholm Cohort of Atrial Fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2010;31:967–975.

13. Thrall G, Lane D, Carroll D, Lip GY. Quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation: a systematic review. Am J Med 2006;119:448 e1–e19.

14. Nieuwlaat R, Capucci A, Camm AJ, Olsson SB, Andresen D, Davies DW, Cobbe S, Breithardt G, Le Heuzey JY, Prins MH, Levy S, Crijns HJ. Atrial fibrillation management: a prospective survey in ESC member countries: the Euro Heart Survey on Atrial Fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2005;26:2422–2434.

15. Nabauer M, Gerth A, Limbourg T, Schneider S, Oeff M, Kirchhof P, Goette A, Lewalter T, Ravens U, Meinertz T, Breithardt G, Steinbeck G. The Registry of the German Competence NETwork on Atrial Fibrillation: patient characteristics and initial management. Europace 2009;11:423–434.

16. Maron BJ, Towbin JA, Thiene G, Antzelevitch C, Corrado D, Arnett D, Moss AJ, Seidman CE, Young JB. Contemporary definitions and classification of the cardiomyopathies: an American Heart Association Scientific Statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Heart Failure and Transplantation Committee; Quality of Care and Outcomes Research and Functional Genomics and Translational Biology Interdisciplinary Working Groups; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation 2006;113:1807–1816.

17. Goette A, Bukowska A, Dobrev D, Pfeiffenberger J, Morawietz H, Strugala D, Wiswedel I, Rohl FW, Wolke C, Bergmann S, Bramlage P, Ravens U, Lendeckel U. Acute atrial tachyarrhythmia induces angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated oxidative stress and microvascular flow abnormalities in the ventricles. Eur Heart J 2009;30:1411–1420.

18. Schotten U, Verheule S, Kirchhof P, Goette A. Pathophysiological mechanisms of atrial fibrillation—a translational appraisal. Physiol Rev 2010;in press.

19. Daoud EG, Bogun F, Goyal R, Harvey M, Man KC, Strickberger SA, Morady F. Effect of atrial fibrillation on atrial refractoriness in humans. Circulation 1996;94:1600–1606.

20. Frustaci A, Chimenti C, Bellocci F, Morgante E, Russo MA, Maseri A. Histological substrate of atrial biopsies in patients with lone atrial fibrillation. Circulation 1997;96:1180–1184.

21. Haissaguerre M, Jais P, Shah DC, Takahashi A, Hocini M, Quiniou G, Garrigue S, LeMouroux A, LeMetayer P, Clementy J. Spontaneous initiation of atrial fibrillation by ectopic beats originating in the pulmonary veins. N Engl J Med 1998;339:659–666.

22. Fox CS, Parise H, D’Agostino RB Sr, Lloyd-Jones DM, Vasan RS, Wang TJ, Levy D, Wolf PA, Benjamin EJ. Parental atrial fibrillation as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation in offspring. JAMA 2004;291:2851–2855.

23. Kirchhof P, Bax J, Blomstrom-Lundquist C, Calkins H, Camm AJ, Cappato R, Cosio F, Crijns H, Diener HC, Goette A, Israel CW, Kuck KH, Lip GY, Nattel S, Page RL, Ravens U, Schotten U, Steinbeck G, Vardas P, Waldo A, Wegscheider K, Willems S, Breithardt G. Early and comprehensive management of atrial fibrillation: executive summary of the proceedings from the 2nd AFNET-EHRA consensus conference ‘Research perspectives in AF’. Eur Heart J 2009;30:p2969–2977c.

24. Hodgson-Zingman DM, Karst ML, Zingman LV, Heublein DM, Darbar D, Herron KJ, Ballew JD, de Andrade M, Burnett JC Jr, Olson TM. Atrial natriuretic peptide frameshift mutation in familial atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2008;359:158–165.

25. Olson TM, Michels VV, Ballew JD, Reyna SP, Karst ML, Herron KJ, Horton SC, Rodeheffer RJ, Anderson JL. Sodium channel mutations and susceptibility to heart failure and atrial fibrillation. JAMA 2005;293:447–454.

26. Chen YH, Xu SJ, Bendahhou S, Wang XL, Wang Y, Xu WY, Jin HW, Sun H, Su XY, Zhuang QN, Yang YQ, Li YB, Liu Y, Xu HJ, Li XF, Ma N, Mou CP, Chen Z, Barhanin J, Huang W. KCNQ1 gain-of-function mutation in familial atrial fibrillation. Science 2003;299: 251–254.

27. Gudbjartsson DF, Holm H, Gretarsdottir S, Thorleifsson G, Walters GB, Thorgeirsson G, Gulcher J, Mathiesen EB, Njolstad I, Nyrnes A, Wilsgaard T, Hald EM, Hveem K, Stoltenberg C, Kucera G, Stubblefield T, Carter S, Roden D, Ng MC, Baum L, So WY, Wong KS, Chan JC, Gieger C, Wichmann HE, Gschwendtner A, Dichgans M, Kuhlenbaumer G, Berger K, Ringelstein EB, Bevan S, Markus HS, Kostulas K, Hillert J, Sveinbjornsdottir S, Valdimarsson EM, Lochen ML, Ma RC, Darbar D, Kong A, Arnar DO, Thorsteinsdottir U, Stefansson K. A sequence variant in ZFHX3 on 16q22 associates with atrial fibrillation and ischemic stroke. Nat Genet 2009;41:876–878.

28. Packer DL, Bardy GH, Worley SJ, Smith MS, Cobb FR, Coleman RE, Gallagher JJ, German LD. Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy: a reversible form of left ventricular dysfunction. Am J Cardiol 1986;57:563–570.

29. Watson T, Shantsila E, Lip GY. Mechanisms of thrombogenesis in atrial fibrillation: Virchow’s triad revisited. Lancet 2009;373:155–166.

30. Blomstrom-Lundqvist C, Scheinman MM, Aliot EM, Alpert JS, Calkins H, Camm AJ, Camp-bell WB, Haines DE, Kuck KH, Lerman BB, Miller DD, Shaeffer CW, Stevenson WG, Tomaselli GF, Antman EM, Smith SC Jr, Faxon DP, Fuster V, Gibbons RJ, Gregoratos G, Hiratzka LF, Hunt SA, Jacobs AK, Russell RO Jr, Priori SG, Blanc JJ, Budaj A, Burgos EF, Cowie M, Deck-ers JW, Garcia MA, Klein WW, Lekakis J, Lindahl B, Mazzotta G, Morais JC, Oto A, Smiseth O, Trappe HJ. ACC/AHA/ESC guidelines for the management of patients with supraventricular arrhythmias—executive summary. a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines and the Euro-pean Society of Cardiology committee for practice guidelines (writing committee to develop guidelines for the management of patients with supraventricular arrhythmias) developed in collaboration with NASPE-Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:1493–14531.

31. Hobbs FD, Fitzmaurice DA, Mant J, Murray E, Jowett S, Bryan S, Raftery J, Davies M, Lip G. A randomised controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study of systematic screening (targeted and total population screening) versus routine practice for the detection of atrial fibrillation in people aged 65 and over. The SAFE study. Health Technol Assess 2005;9:iii–iv, ix–x, 1–74.

32. Jahangir A, Lee V, Friedman PA, Trusty JM, Hodge DO, Kopecky SL, Packer DL, Hammill SC, Shen WK, Gersh BJ. Long-term progression and outcomes with aging in patients with lone atrial fibrillation: a 30-year follow-up study. Circulation 2007;115:3050–3056.

33. Calkins H, Brugada J, Packer DL, Cappato R, Chen SA, Crijns HJ, Damiano RJ Jr, Davies DW, Haines DE, Haissaguerre M, Iesaka Y, Jackman W, Jais P, Kottkamp H, Kuck KH, Lindsay BD, Marchlinski FE, McCarthy PM, Mont JL, Morady F, Nademanee K, Natale A, Pappone C, Prystowsky E, Raviele A, Ruskin JN, Shemin RJ, Calkins H, Brugada J, Chen SA, Prystowsky EN, Kuck KH, Natale A, Haines DE, Marchlinski FE, Calkins H, Davies DW, Lindsay BD, Mc-Carthy PM, Packer DL, Cappato R, Crijns HJ, Damiano RJ Jr, Haissaguerre M, Jackman WM, Jais P, Iesaka Y, Kottkamp H, Mont L, Morady F, Nademanee K, Pappone C, Raviele A, Ruskin JN, Shemin RJ. HRS/EHRA/ECAS Expert Consensus Statement on Catheter and Surgical Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation: Recommendations for Personnel, Policy, Procedures and Follow-Up: a report of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) Task Force on Catheter and Surgical Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation developed in partnership with the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the European Cardiac Arrhythmia Society (ECAS); in collaboration with the American College of Cardiology (ACC), American Heart Association (AHA), and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS). Endorsed and approved by the governing bodies of the American College of Cardiology, the American Heart Association, the European Cardiac Arrhythmia Society, the European Heart Rhythm Association, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and the Heart Rhythm Society. Europace 2007;9:335–379.

34. Jabaudon D, Sztajzel J, Sievert K, Landis T, Sztajzel R. Usefulness of ambulatory 7-day ECG monitoring for the detection of atrial fibrillation and flutter after acute stroke and transient ischemic attack. Stroke 2004;35:1647–1651.

35. Hindricks G, Piorkowski C, Tanner H, Kobza R, Gerds-Li JH, Carbucicchio C, Kottkamp H. Perception of atrial fibrillation before and after radiofrequency catheter ablation: relevance of asymptomatic arrhythmia recurrence. Circulation 2005;112:307–313.

36. Israel CW, Gronefeld G, Ehrlich JR, Li YG, Hohnloser SH. Long-term risk of recurrent atrial fibrillation as documented by an implantable monitoring device: implications for optimal patient care. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:47–52.

37. Ziegler PD, Koehler JL, Mehra R. Comparison of continuous versus intermittent monitoring of atrial arrhythmias. Heart Rhythm 2006;3:1445–1452.

38. Binici Z, Intzilakis T, Nielsen OW, Kober L, Sajadieh A. Excessive Supraventricular ectopic activity and increased risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke. Circulation 2010;121:1904–1911.

39. Brignole M, Vardas P, Hoffman E, Huikuri H, Moya A, Ricci R, Sulke N, Wieling W, Auric-chio A, Lip GY, Almendral J, Kirchhof P, Aliot E, Gasparini M, Braunschweig F, Botto GL. Indications for the use of diagnostic implantable and external ECG loop recorders. Europace 2009;11:671–687.

40. Hindricks G, Pokushalov E, Urban L, Taborsky M, Kuck KH, Lebedev D, Rieger G, Purerfellner H. Performance of a new leadless implantable cardiac monitor in detecting and quantifying atrial fibrillation—results of the XPECT trial. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2010;3:141–147.

41. Dorian P, Guerra PG, Kerr CR, O’Donnell SS, Crystal E, Gillis AM, Mitchell LB, Roy D, Skanes AC, Rose MS, Wyse DG. Validation of a new simple scale to measure symptoms in atrial fibrillation: the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Severity in Atrial Fibrillation scale. Circ Ar-rhythm Electrophysiol 2009;2:218–224.

42. Klein AL, Grimm RA, Murray RD, Apperson-Hansen C, Asinger RW, Black IW, Davidoff R, Erbel R, Halperin JL, Orsinelli DA, Porter TR, Stoddard MF. Use of transesophageal echocardiography to guide cardioversion in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1411–1420.

43. Fitzmaurice DA, Hobbs FD, Jowett S, Mant J, Murray ET, Holder R, Raftery JP, Bryan S, Davies M, Lip GY, Allan TF. Screening versus routine practice in detection of atrial fibrillation in patients aged 65 or over: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2007;335:383.

44. Dickstein K, Cohen-Solal A, Filippatos G, McMurray JJ, Ponikowski P, Poole-Wilson PA, Stromberg A, van Veldhuisen DJ, Atar D, Hoes AW, Keren A, Mebazaa A, Nieminen M, Priori SG, Swedberg K, Vahanian A, Camm J, De Caterina R, Dean V, Funck-Brentano C, Helle-mans I, Kristensen SD, McGregor K, Sechtem U, Silber S, Tendera M, Widimsky P, Zamorano JL. ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2008: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2008 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association of the ESC (HFA) and endorsed by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM). Eur Heart J 2008;29:2388–2442.

45. Haverkamp W, Breithardt G, Camm AJ, Janse MJ, Rosen MR, Antzelevitch C, Escande D, Franz M, Malik M, Moss A, Shah R. The potential for QT prolongation and proarrhythmia by non-antiarrhythmic drugs: clinical and regulatory implications. Report on a policy conference of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2000;21:1216–1231.

46. Singh BN, Singh SN, Reda DJ, Tang XC, Lopez B, Harris CL, Fletcher RD, Sharma SC, Atwood JE, Jacobson AK, Lewis HD Jr, Raisch DW, Ezekowitz MD. Amiodarone versus sotalol for atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1861–1872.

47. Hughes M, Lip GY. Stroke and thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation: a systematic review of stroke risk factors, risk stratification schema and cost effectiveness data. Thromb Haemost 2008;99:295–304.

48. Stroke in AF working group. Independent predictors of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a systematic review. Neurology 2007;69:546–554.

49. Schmitt J, Duray G, Gersh BJ, Hohnloser SH. Atrial fibrillation in acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review of the incidence, clinical features and prognostic implications. Eur Heart J 2009;30:1038–1045.

50. Gage BF, Waterman AD, Shannon W, Boechler M, Rich MW, Radford MJ. Validation of clinical classification schemes for predicting stroke: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation. JAMA 2001;285:2864–2870.

51. Go AS, Hylek EM, Chang Y, Phillips KA, Henault LE, Capra AM, Jensvold NG, Selby JV, Singer DE. Anticoagulation therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: how well do random-ized trials translate into clinical practice? JAMA 2003; 290:2685–2692.

52. Lip GY, Nieuwlaat R, Pisters R, Lane DA, Crijns HJ. Refining clinical risk stratification for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation using a novel risk factor-based approach: the Euro Heart Survey on atrial fibrillation. Chest 2010;137:263–272.

53. Lip GY, Frison L, Halperin J, Lane D. Identifying patients at risk of stroke despite anticoagulation. Stroke 2010.

54. Hart RG, Pearce LA, Aguilar MI. Meta-analysis: antithrombotic therapy to prevent stroke in patients who have nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Ann Intern Med 2007;146:857–867.

55. Sato H, Ishikawa K, Kitabatake A, Ogawa S, Maruyama Y, Yokota Y, Fukuyama T, Doi Y, Mochizuki S, Izumi T, Takekoshi N, Yoshida K, Hiramori K, Origasa H, Uchiyama S, Mat-sumoto M, Yamaguchi T, Hori M. Low-dose aspirin for prevention of stroke in low-risk patients with atrial fibrillation: Japan Atrial Fibrillation Stroke Trial. Stroke 2006;37:447–451.

56. Mant J, Hobbs FD, Fletcher K, Roalfe A, Fitzmaurice D, Lip GY, Murray E. Warfarin versus aspirin for stroke prevention in an elderly community population with atrial fibrillation (the Birmingham Atrial Fibrillation Treatment of the Aged Study, BAFTA): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007;370:493–503.

57. Connolly S, Pogue J, Hart R, Pfeffer M, Hohnloser S, Chrolavicius S, Yusuf S. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in the Atrial fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial with Irbesartan for prevention of Vascular Events (ACTIVE W): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006;367:1903–1912.

58. Connolly SJ, Pogue J, Hart RG, Hohnloser SH, Pfeffer M, Chrolavicius S, Yusuf S. Effect of clopidogrel added to aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009;360:2066–2078.

59. Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, Eikelboom J, Oldgren J, Parekh A, Pogue J, Reilly PA, Themeles E, Varrone J, Wang S, Alings M, Xavier D, Zhu J, Diaz R, Lewis BS, Darius H, Diener HC, Joyner CD,Wallentin L. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009;361:1139–1151.

60. Pisters R, Lane DA, Nieuwlaat R, de Vos CB, Crijns HJ, Lip GY. A novel userfriendly score (HAS-BLED) to assess one-year risk of major bleeding in atrial fibrillation patients: The Euro Heart Survey. Chest 2010; March 18 [Epub ahead of print].

61. Lip GY, Huber K, Andreotti F, Arnesen H, Airaksinen KJ, Cuisset T, Kirchhof P, Marin F. Management of antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention/stenting. Thromb Haemost 2010;103:13–28.

62. Holmes DR, Reddy VY, Turi ZG, Doshi SK, Sievert H, Buchbinder M, Mullin CM, Sick P. Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage versus warfarin therapy for prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomised noninferiority trial. Lancet 2009;374:534–542.

63. Singer DE, Albers GW, Dalen JE, Fang MC, Go AS, Halperin JL, Lip GY, Manning WJ. An-tithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008;133:546S–592S.

64. Vahanian A, Baumgartner H, Bax J, Butchart E, Dion R, Filippatos G, Flachskampf F, Hall R, Iung B, Kasprzak J, Nataf P, Tornos P, Torracca L, Wenink A. Guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease: the Task Force on the Management of Valvular Heart Disease of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2007;28:230–268.

65. Fang MC, Go AS, Hylek EM, Chang Y, Henault LE, Jensvold NG, Singer DE. Age and the risk of warfarin-associated hemorrhage: the anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006;54:1231–1236.

66. Poldermans D, Bax JJ, Boersma E, De Hert S, Eeckhout E, Fowkes G, Gorenek B, Hennerici MG, Iung B, Kelm M, Kjeldsen KP, Kristensen SD, Lopez-Sendon J, Pelosi P, Philippe F, Pier-ard L, Ponikowski P, Schmid JP, Sellevold OF, Sicari R, Van den Berghe G, Vermassen F, Hoeks SE, Vanhorebeek I, Vahanian A, Auricchio A, Ceconi C, Dean V, Filippatos G, Funck-Brentano C, Hobbs R, Kearn P, McDonag T, McGregor K, Popescu BA, Reiner Z, Sechtem U, Sirnes PA, Tendera M, Vardas P, Widimsky P, De Caterina R, Agewall S, Al Attar N, An-dreotti F, Anker SD, Baron-Esquivias G, Berkenboom G, Chapoutot L, Cifkova R, Faggiano P, Gibbs S, Hansen HS, Iserin L, Israel CW, Kornowski R, Eizagaechevarria NM, Pepi M, Piepoli M, Priebe HJ, Scherer M, Stepinska J, Taggart D, Tubaro M. Guidelines for pre-operative cardiac risk assessment and perioperative cardiac management in non-cardiac surgery: the Task Force for Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment and Perioperative Cardiac Management in Non-cardiac Surgery of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and endorsed by the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA). Eur J Anaesthesiol 2010;27:92–137.

67. Alboni P, Botto GL, Baldi N, Luzi M, Russo V, Gianfranchi L, Marchi P, Calzolari M, Solano A, Baroffio R, Gaggioli G. Outpatient treatment of recent-onset atrial fibrillation with the ‘pill-in-the-pocket’ approach. N Engl J Med 2004;351:2384–2391.

68. Kowey PR, Dorian P, Mitchell LB, Pratt CM, Roy D, Schwartz PJ, Sadowski J, Sobczyk D, Bochenek A, Toft E. Vernakalant hydrochloride for the rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2009;2:652–659.

69. Roy D, Pratt CM, Torp-Pedersen C, Wyse DG, Toft E, Juul-Moller S, Nielsen T, Rasmussen SL, Stiell IG, Coutu B, Ip JH, Pritchett EL, Camm AJ. Vernakalant hydrochloride for rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation: a phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Circulation 2008;117:1518–1525.

70. Camm AJ, Capucci A, Hohnloser S, Torp-Pedersen C, Van Gelder IC, Mangal B, Beatch GN. A randomized active-controlled study comparing the efficacy and safety of vernakalant to amiodarone in recent onset atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;in press.

71. Reisinger J, Gatterer E, LangW, Vanicek T, Eisserer G, Bachleitner T, Niemeth C, Aicher F, Grander W, Heinze G, Kuhn P, Siostrzonek P. Flecainide versus ibutilide for immediate car-dioversion of atrial fibrillation of recent onset. Eur Heart J 2004;25:1318–1324.

72. Khan IA. Single oral loading dose of propafenone for pharmacological cardioversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:542–547.

73. Martinez-Marcos FJ, Garcia-Garmendia JL, Ortega-Carpio A, Fernandez-Gomez JM, Santos JM, Camacho C. Comparison of intravenous flecainide, propafenone, and amiodarone for conversion of acute atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. Am J Cardiol 2000;86:950–953.

74. Chevalier P, Durand-Dubief A, Burri H, Cucherat M, Kirkorian G, Touboul P. Amiodarone versus placebo and class Ic drugs for cardioversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:255–262.

75. Vardas PE, Kochiadakis GE, Igoumenidis NE, Tsatsakis AM, Simantirakis EN, Chlouverakis GI. Amiodarone as a first-choice drug for restoring sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomized, controlled study. Chest 2000; 117:1538–1545.

76. Bianconi L, Castro A, Dinelli M, Alboni P, Pappalardo A, Richiardi E, Santini M. Comparison of intravenously administered dofetilide versus amiodarone in the acute termination of atrial fibrillation and flutter. A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur Heart J 2000;21:1265–1273.

77. Stambler BS, Wood MA, Ellenbogen KA. Antiarrhythmic actions of intravenous ibutilide compared with procainamide during human atrial flutter and fibrillation: electrophysiological determinants of enhanced conversion efficacy. Circulation 1997;96:4298–4306.

78. Kirchhof P, Eckardt L, Loh P, Weber K, Fischer RJ, Seidl KH, Bo¨cker D, Breithardt G, Haverkamp W, Borggrefe M. Anterior–posterior versus anterior–lateral electrode positions for external cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a randomised trial. Lancet 2002;360: 1275–1279.

79. Oral H, Souza JJ, Michaud GF, Knight BP, Goyal R, Strickberger SA, Morady F. Facilitating transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation with ibutilide pretreatment. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1849–1854.

80. Manios EG, Mavrakis HE, Kanoupakis EM, Kallergis EM, Dermitzaki DN, Kambouraki DC, Vardas PE. Effects of amiodarone and diltiazem on persistent atrial fibrillation conversion and recurrence rates: a randomized controlled study. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2003;17: 31–39.

81. Bianconi L, Mennuni M, Lukic V, Castro A, Chieffi M, Santini M. Effects of oral propafenone administration before electrical cardioversion of chronic atrial fibrillation: a placebo-controlled study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28:700–706.

82. Gulamhusein S, Ko P, Carruthers SG, Klein GJ. Acceleration of the ventricular response during atrial fibrillation in the Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome after verapamil. Circulation 1982;65:348–354.

83. Fetsch T, Bauer P, Engberding R, Koch HP, Lukl J, Meinertz T, Oeff M, Seipel L, Trappe HJ, Treese N, Breithardt G. Prevention of atrial fibrillation after cardioversion: results of the PAFAC trial. Eur Heart J 2004;25:1385–1394.

84. Cosio FG, Aliot E, Botto GL, Heidbuchel H, Geller CJ, Kirchhof P, De Haro JC, Frank R, Villa-castin JP, Vijgen J, Crijns H. Delayed rhythm control of atrial fibrillation may be a cause of failure to prevent recurrences: reasons for change to active antiarrhythmic treatment at the time of the first detected episode. Europace 2008;10:21–27.

85. Kirchhof P. Can we improve outcomes in atrial fibrillation patients by early therapy? BMC Med 2009;7:72.

86. AFFIRM Investigators. A comparison of rate control and rhythm control in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2002;347:1825–1833.

87. Van Gelder IC, Hagens VE, Bosker HA, Kingma H, Kamp O, Kingma T, Said SA, Darmanata JI, Timmermanns AJM, Tijssen JGP, Crijns HJ. A comparison of rate control and rhythm control in patients with recurrent persistent atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2002;347: 1834–1840.

88. Carlsson J, Miketic S, Windeler J, Cuneo A, Haun S, Micus S, Walter S, Tebbe U, and the STAF Investigators. Randomized trial of rate-control versus rhythmcontrol in persistent atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:1690–1696.

89. Opolski G, Torbicki A, Kosior DA, Szulc M,Wozakowska-Kaplon B, Kolodziej P, Achremczyk

90. P. Rate control vs rhythm control in patients with nonvalvular persistent atrial fibrillation: the results of the Polish How to Treat Chronic Atrial Fibrillation (HOT CAFE) Study. Chest 2004;126:476–486.

91. Roy D, Talajic M, Nattel S, Wyse DG, Dorian P, Lee KL, Bourassa MG, Arnold JM, Buxton AE, Camm AJ, Connolly SJ, Dubuc M, Ducharme A, Guerra PG, Hohnloser SH, Lambert J, Le Heuzey JY, O’Hara G, Pedersen OD, Rouleau JL, Singh BN, Stevenson LW, Stevenson WG, Thibault B, Waldo AL. Rhythm control versus rate control for atrial fibrillation and heart failure. N Engl J Med 2008;358:2667–2677.

92. Ogawa S, Yamashita T, Yamazaki T, Aizawa Y, Atarashi H, Inoue H, Ohe T, Ohtsu H, Okumura K, Katoh T, Kamakura S, Kumagai K, Kurachi Y, Kodama I, Koretsune Y, Saikawa T, Sakurai M, Sugi K, Tabuchi T, Nakaya H, Nakayama T, Hirai M, Fukatani M, Mitamura H. Optimal treatment strategy for patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: J-RHYTHM Study. Circ J 2009;73:242–248.

93. Hohnloser SH, Kuck KH, Lilienthal J. Rhythm or rate control in atrial fibrillation—Pharmacological Intervention in Atrial Fibrillation (PIAF): a randomised trial. Lancet 2000;356: 1789–1794.

94. Hsu LF, Jais P, Sanders P, Garrigue S, Hocini M, Sacher F, Takahashi Y, Rotter M, Pasquie JL, Scavee C, Bordachar P, Clementy J, Haissaguerre M. Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation in congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 2004;351:2373–2383.

95. Khan MN, Jais P, Cummings J, Di Biase L, Sanders P, Martin DO, Kautzner J, Hao S, Themistoclakis S, Fanelli R, Potenza D, Massaro R, Wazni O, Schweikert R, Saliba W, Wang P, Al-Ahmad A, Beheiry S, Santarelli P, Starling RC, Dello Russo A, Pelargonio G, Brachmann J, Schibgilla V, Bonso A, Casella M, Raviele A, Haissaguerre M, Natale A. Pulmonary-vein isolation for atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure. N Engl J Med 2008;359: 1778–1785.

96. Hohnloser SH, Crijns HJ, van Eickels M, Gaudin C, Page RL, Torp-Pedersen C, Connolly SJ. Effect of dronedarone on cardiovascular events in atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009;360:668–678.

97. Wilber DJ, Pappone C, Neuzil P, De Paola A, Marchlinski F, Natale A, Macle L, Daoud EG, Calkins H, Hall B, Reddy V, Augello G, Reynolds MR, Vinekar C, Liu CY, Berry SM, Berry DA. Comparison of antiarrhythmic drug therapy and radiofrequency catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2010;303:333–340.

98. Talajic M, Khairy P, Levesque S, Connolly SJ, Dorian P, Dubuc M, Guerra PG, Hohnloser SH, Lee KL, Macle L, Nattel S, Pedersen OD, Stevenson LW, Thibault B, Waldo AL, Wyse DG, Roy D. Maintenance of sinus rhythm and survival in patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;55:1796–1802.

99. Van Gelder IC, Groenveld HF, Crijns HJ, Tuininga YS, Tijssen JG, Alings AM, Hillege HL, Bergsma-Kadijk JA, Cornel JH, Kamp O, Tukkie R, Bosker HA, Van Veldhuisen DJ, Van den Berg MP. Lenient versus strict rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2010;362:1363–1373.

100. Singh BN, Connolly SJ, Crijns HJ, Roy D, Kowey PR, Capucci A, Radzik D, Aliot EM, Hohn-loser SH. Dronedarone for maintenance of sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation or flutter. N Engl J Med 2007;357:987–999.

101. Segal JB, McNamara RL, Miller MR, Kim N, Goodman SN, Powe NR, Robinson K, Yu D,

102. Bass EB. The evidence regarding the drugs used for ventricular rate control. J Fam Pract 2000;49:47–59.

103. Hou ZY, Chang MS, Chen CY, Tu MS, Lin SL, Chiang HT, Woosley RL. Acute treatment of recent-onset atrial fibrillation and flutter with a tailored dosing regimen of intravenous amiodarone. A randomized, digoxin-controlled study. Eur Heart J 1995;16:521–528.

104. Redfearn DP, Krahn AD, Skanes AC, Yee R, Klein GJ. Use of medications in Wolff–Parkin-son–White syndrome. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2005;6:955–963.

105. Davy JM, Herold M, Hoglund C, Timmermans A, Alings A, Radzik D, Van Kempen L. Dronedarone for the control of ventricular rate in permanent atrial fibrillation: the Efficacy and safety of dRonedArone for the cOntrol of ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation (ERATO) study. Am Heart J 2008;156:527.e1–527.e9.

106. Murgatroyd FD, Gibson SM, Baiyan X, O’Nunain S, Poloniecki JD, Ward DE, Malik M, Camm AJ. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of digoxin in symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Circulation 1999;99:2765–2770.

107. Gasparini M, Auricchio A, Metra M, Regoli F, Fantoni C, Lamp B, Curnis A, Vogt J, Klersy C. Long-term survival in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy: the importance of performing atrio-ventricular junction ablation in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2008;29:1644–1652.

108. Ozcan C, Jahangir A, Friedman PA, Patel PJ, Munger TM, Rea RF, Lloyd MA, Packer DL, Hodge DO, Gersh BJ, Hammill SC, Shen WK. Long-term survival after ablation of the atrioventricular node and implantation of a permanent pacemaker in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1043–1051.

109. Weerasooriya R, Davis M, Powell A, Szili-Torok T, Shah C, Whalley D, Kanagaratnam L, Heddle W, Leitch J, Perks A, Ferguson L, Bulsara M. The Australian intervention random-ized control of rate in atrial fibrillation trial (AIRCRAFT). J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41: 1697–1702.

110. Upadhyay GA, Choudhry NK, Auricchio A, Ruskin J, Singh JP. Cardiac resynchronization in patients with atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;52:1239–1246.

111. Auricchio A, Metra M, Gasparini M, Lamp B, Klersy C, Curnis A, Fantoni C, Gronda E, Vogt J. Long-term survival of patients with heart failure and ventricular conduction delay treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy. Am J Cardiol 2007;99:232–238.

112. Dong K, Shen WK, Powell BD, Dong YX, Rea RF, Friedman PA, Hodge DO, Wiste HJ, Web-ster T, Hayes DL, Cha YM. Atrioventricular nodal ablation predicts survival benefit in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy. Heart Rhythm 2010; Feb 17 [Epub ahead of print].

113. Lafuente-Lafuente C, Mouly S, Longas-Tejero MA, Bergmann JF. Antiarrhythmics for maintaining sinus rhythm after cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;4:CD005049.

114. McNamara RL, Bass EB, Miller MR, Segal JB, Goodman SN, Kim NL, Robinson KA, Powe NR. Management of new onset atrial fibrillation (evidence report/Technology assessment). In: Agency for Heathcare Research and Quality. 2001, Publication No. AHRQ 01-E026.

115. Connolly SJ. Evidence-based analysis of amiodarone efficacy and safety. Circulation 1999;100:2025–2034.

116. Kirchhof P, Franz MR, Bardai A, Wilde AM. Giant T–U waves precede torsades de pointes in long QT syndrome. A systematic electrocardiographic analysis in patients with acquired and congenital QT prolongation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;54:143–149.

117. Ka¨a¨b S, Hinterseer M, Na¨bauer M, Steinbeck G. Sotalol testing unmasks altered repolarization in patients with suspected acquired long-QT-syndrome-a casecontrol pilot study using i.v. sotalol. Eur Heart J 2003;24:649–657.

118. Le Heuzey J, De Ferrari GM, Radzik D, Santini M, Zhu J, Davy JM. A short-term, random-ized, double-blind, parallel-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dronedarone versus amiodarone in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation: the DIONYSOS study. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2010;21:597–605.

119. Kober L, Torp-Pedersen C, McMurray JJ, Gotzsche O, Levy S, Crijns H, Amlie J, Carlsen J. Increased mortality after dronedarone therapy for severe heart failure. N Engl J Med 2008;358:2678–2687.

120. Karlson BW, Torstensson I, Abjorn C, Jansson SO, Peterson LE. Disopyramide in the maintenance of sinus rhythm after electroconversion of atrial fibrillation. A placebo-controlled one-year follow-up study. Eur Heart J 1988;9:284–290.

121. Crijns HJ, Gosselink AT, Lie KI. Propafenone versus disopyramide for maintenance of sinus rhythm after electrical cardioversion of chronic atrial fibrillation: a randomized, double-blind study. PRODIS Study Group. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1996;10:145–152.

122. Bardy GH, Lee KL, Mark DB, Poole JE, Packer DL, Boineau R, Domanski M, Troutman C, Anderson J, Johnson G, McNulty SE, Clapp-Channing N, Davidson-Ray LD, Fraulo ES, Fishbein DP, Luceri RM, Ip JH. Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 2005;352:225–237.

123. Piccini JP, Hasselblad V, Peterson ED,Washam JB, Califf RM, Kong DF. Comparative efficacy of dronedarone and amiodarone for the maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;54:1089–1095.

124. Singh D, Cingolani E, Diamon GA, Kaul S. Dronedarone for atrial fibrillation: have we expanded the antiarrhythmic armamentarium. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;55:1569–1576.

125. Freemantle N, Mitchell S, Orme M, Eckert L, Reynolds MR. Morbidity and mortality associated with anti-arrhythmic drugs in atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and mixed treatment meta-analysis (abstract). Circulation 2009;120:S691–S692.

126. Echt DS, Liebson PR, Mitchell LB, Peters RW, Obias-Manno D, Barker AH, Arensberg D, Baker A, Friedman L, Greene HL, Huther ML, Richardson DW, Investigators and the CAST investigators. Mortality and morbidity in patients receiving encainide, flecainide, or placebo. The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial. N Engl J Med 1991;324:781–788.

127. Roy D, Talajic M, Dorian P, Connolly S, Eisenberg MJ, Green M, Kus T, Lambert J, Dubuc M, Gagne P, Nattel S, Thibault B. Amiodarone to prevent recurrence of atrial fibrillation. Canadian Trial of Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000;342:913–920.

128. Singh SN, Fletcher RD, Fisher SG, Singh BN, Lewis HD, Deedwania PC, Massie BM, Colling C, Lazzeri D. Amiodarone in patients with congestive heart failure and asymptomatic ventricular arrhythmia. Survival Trial of Antiarrhythmic Therapy in Congestive Heart Failure. N Engl J Med 1995;333:77–82.

129. Van Gelder IC, Crijns HJ, Van Gilst WH, Van Wijk LM, Hamer HP, Lie KI. Efficacy and safety of flecainide acetate in the maintenance of sinus rhythm after electrical cardioversion of chronic atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 1989;64:1317–1321.

130. Shah AN, Mittal S, Sichrovsky TC, Cotiga D, Arshad A, Maleki K, Pierce WJ, Steinberg JS. Long-term outcome following successful pulmonary vein isolation: pattern and prediction of very late recurrence. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2008;19:661–667.

131. Cappato R, Calkins H, Chen SA, Davies W, Iesaka Y, Kalman J, Kim YH, Klein G, Packer D, Skanes A. Worldwide survey on the methods, efficacy, and safety of catheter ablation for human atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2005;111:1100–1105.

132. Cappato R, Calkins H, Chen SA, Davies W, Iesaka Y, Kalman J, Kim YH, Klein G, Natale A, Packer D, Skanes A. Prevalence and causes of fatal outcome in catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;53:1798–1803.

133. Calkins H, Reynolds MR, Spector P, Sondhi M, Xu Y, Martin A, Williams CJ, Sledge I. Treatment of atrial fibrillation with antiarrhythmic drugs or radiofrequency ablation: two systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2009;2: 349–361.

134. Noheria A, Kumar A, Wylie JV Jr, Josephson ME. Catheter ablation vs antiarrhythmic drug therapy for atrial fibrillation: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:581–586.

135. Jais P, Cauchemez B, Macle L, Daoud E, Khairy P, Subbiah R, Hocini M, Extramiana F, Sacher F, Bordachar P, Klein G, Weerasooriya R, Clementy J, Haissaguerre M. Catheter ablation versus antiarrhythmic drugs for atrial fibrillation: the A4 study. Circulation 2008;118:2498–2505.

136. Wazni OM, Marrouche NF, Martin DO, Verma A, Bhargava M, SalibaW, Bash D, Schweikert R, Brachmann J, Gunther J, Gutleben K, Pisano E, Potenza D, Fanelli R, Raviele A, Themistoclakis S, Rossillo A, Bonso A, Natale A. Radiofrequency ablation vs antiarrhythmic drugs as first-line treatment of symptomatic atrial fibrillation: a randomized trial. JAMA 2005;293:2634–2640.

137. Pappone C, Augello G, Sala S, Gugliotta F, Vicedomini G, Gulletta S, Paglino G, Mazzone P, Sora N, Greiss I, Santagostino A, LiVolsi L, Pappone N, Radinovic A, Manguso F, Santinelli V. A randomized trial of circumferential pulmonary vein ablation versus antiarrhythmic drug therapy in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: the APAF Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;48:2340–2347.

138. Blanc JJ, Almendral J, Brignole M, Fatemi M, Gjesdal K, Gonzalez-Torrecilla E, Kulakowski P, Lip GY, Shah D, Wolpert C. Consensus document on antithrombotic therapy in the setting of electrophysiological procedures. Europace 2008;10:513–527.

139. Piccini JP, Lopes RD, Kong MH, Hasselblad V, Jackson K, Al-Khatib SM. Pulmonary vein isolation for the maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2009;2:626–633.

140. Nair GM, Nery PB, Diwakaramenon S, Healey JS, Connolly SJ, Morillo CA. A systematic review of randomized trials comparing radiofrequency ablation with antiarrhythmic medications in patients with atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2009;20:138–144.

141. Ngaage DL, Schaff HV, Mullany CJ, Barnes S, Dearani JA, Daly RC, Orszulak TA, Sundt TM 3rd. Influence of preoperative atrial fibrillation on late results of mitral repair: is concomitant ablation justified? Ann Thorac Surg 2007;84:434–442; discussion 442–443.

142. Gaita F, Riccardi R, Caponi D, Shah D, Garberoglio L, Vivalda L, Dulio A, Chiecchio A, Man-asse E, Gallotti R. Linear cryoablation of the left atrium versus pulmonary vein cryoisolation in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation and valvular heart disease: correlation of electroanatomic mapping and longterm clinical results. Circulation 2005;111:136–142.

143. Cox JL, Boineau JP, Schuessler RB, Ferguson TB Jr, Cain ME, Lindsay BD, Corr PB, Kater KM, Lappas DG. Successful surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. Review and clinical update. JAMA 1991;266:1976–1980.

144. Gaita F, Riccardi R, Gallotti R. Surgical approaches to atrial fibrillation. Card Electrophysiol Rev 2002;6:401–405.

145. Savelieva I, Camm AJ. Is there any hope for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in atrial fibrillation? Am Heart J 2007;154:403–406.

146. Goette A, Staack T, Rocken C, Arndt M, Geller JC, Huth C, Ansorge S, Klein HU, Lendeckel U. Increased expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and angiotensin-converting enzyme in human atria during atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35: 1669–1677.

147. Schneider MP, Hua TA, Bohm M, Wachtell K, Kjeldsen SE, Schmieder RE. Prevention of atrial fibrillation by renin–angiotensin system inhibition a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;55:2299–2307.

148. Healey JS, Baranchuk A, Crystal E, Morillo CA, Garfinkle M, Yusuf S, Connolly SJ. Prevention of atrial fibrillation with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:1832–1839.

149. Jibrini MB, Molnar J, Arora RR. Prevention of atrial fibrillation by way of abrogation of the renin–angiotensin system: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Ther 2008;15: 36–43.

150. Anand K, Mooss AN, Hee TT, Mohiuddin SM. Meta-analysis: inhibition of renin-an-giotensin system prevents new-onset atrial fibrillation. Am Heart J 2006;152:217–222.

151. Ducharme A, Swedberg K, Pfeffer MA, Cohen-Solal A, Granger CB, Maggioni AP, Michel-son EL, McMurray JJ, Olsson L, Rouleau JL, Young JB, Yusuf S. Prevention of atrial fibrillation in patients with symptomatic chronic heart failure by candesartan in the Candesartan in Heart failure: assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) program. Am Heart J 2006;151:985–991.

152. Wachtell K, Lehto M, Gerdts E, Olsen MH, Hornestam B, Dahlof B, Ibsen H, Julius S, Kjeld-sen SE, Lindholm LH, Nieminen MS, Devereux RB. Angiotensin II receptor blockade reduces new-onset atrial fibrillation and subsequent stroke compared to atenolol: the Losartan Intervention For End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:712–719.

153. Schmieder RE, Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, McInnes GT, Zanchetti A, Hua TA. Reduced incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation with angiotensin II receptor blockade: the VALUE trial. J Hypertens 2008;26:403–411.

154. Madrid AH, Bueno MG, Rebollo JM, Marin I, Pena G, Bernal E, Rodriguez A, Cano L, Cano JM, Cabeza P, Moro C. Use of irbesartan to maintain sinus rhythm in patients with long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation: a prospective and randomized study. Circulation 2002;106:331–336.

155. Ueng KC, Tsai TP, Yu WC, Tsai CF, Lin MC, Chan KC, Chen CY, Wu DJ, Lin CS, Chen SA. Use of enalapril to facilitate sinus rhythm maintenance after external cardioversion of longstanding persistent atrial fibrillation. Results of a prospective and controlled study. Eur Heart J 2003;24:2090–2098.

156. Tveit A, Seljeflot I, Grundvold I, Abdelnoor M, Smith P, Arnesen H. Effect of candesartan and various inflammatory markers on maintenance of sinus rhythm after electrical car-dioversion for atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 2007;99:1544–1548.

157. Yin Y, Dalal D, Liu Z, Wu J, Liu D, Lan X, Dai Y, Su L, Ling Z, She Q, Luo K, Woo K, Dong J. Prospective randomized study comparing amiodarone vs. amiodarone plus losartan vs. amiodarone plus perindopril for the prevention of atrial fibrillation recurrence in patients with lone paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2006;27:1841–1846.

158. Belluzzi F, Sernesi L, Preti P, Salinaro F, Fonte ML, Perlini S. Prevention of recurrent lone atrial fibrillation by the angiotensin-II converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril in normotensive patients. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;53:24–29.

159. Disertori M, Latini R, Barlera S, Franzosi MG, Staszewsky L, Maggioni AP, Lucci D, Di Pasquale G, Tognoni G. Valsartan for prevention of recurrent atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009;360:1606–1617.

160. Savelieva I, Camm AJ. Statins and polyunsaturated fatty acids for treatment of atrial fibrillation. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 2008;5:30–41.

161. Savelieva I, Kourliouros A, Camm J. Primary and secondary prevention of atrial fibrillation with statins and polyunsaturated fatty acids: review of evidence and clinical relevance. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2010;381:1–13.

162. Santangeli P, Ferrante G, Pelargonio G, Dello Russo A, Casella M, Bartoletti S, Di Biase L, Crea F, Natale A. Usefulness of statins in preventing atrial fibrillation in patients with permanent pacemaker: a systematic review. Europace 2010;12:649–654.

163. Patti G, Chello M, Candura D, Pasceri V, D’Ambrosio A, Covino E, Di Sciascio G. Random-ized trial of atorvastatin for reduction of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: results of the ARMYDA-3 (Atorvastatin for Reduction of MYocardial Dysrhythmia After cardiac surgery) study. Circulation 2006;114:1455–1461.

164. Liakopoulos OJ, Choi YH, Kuhn EW, Wittwer T, Borys M, Madershahian N, Wassmer G, Wahlers T. Statins for prevention of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a systematic literature review. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2009;138:678–686 e1.

165. Almroth H, Hoglund N, Boman K, Englund A, Jensen S, Kjellman B, Tornvall P, Rosenqvist M. Atorvastatin and persistent atrial fibrillation following cardioversion: a randomized placebo-controlled multicentre study. Eur Heart J 2009;30:827–833.

166. Fauchier L, Pierre B, de Labriolle A, Grimard C, Zannad N, Babuty D. Antiarrhythmic effect of statin therapy and atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;51:828–835.

167. Liu T, Li L, Korantzopoulos P, Liu E, Li G. Statin use and development of atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials and observational studies. Int J Cardiol 2008;126:160–170.

168. Saravanan P, Bridgewater B, West AL, O’Neill SC, Calder PC, Davidson NC. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation does not reduce risk of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled clinical trial. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2009;3:46–53.

169. Heidarsdottir R, Arnar DO, Skuladottir GV, Torfason B, Edvardsson V, Gottskalksson G, Palsson R, Indridason OS. Does treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent atrial fibrillation after open heart surgery? Europace 2010;12:356–363.

170. Bertini M, Borleffs JW, Delgado V, Ng AA, Piers SR, Shanks M, Antoni LM, Biffi M, Boriani G, Schalij M, Bax JJ, Van de Veire N. Prediction of atrial fibrillation in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 2010;in press.

171. Fauchier L, Grimard C, Pierre B, Nonin E, Gorin L, Rauzy B, Cosnay P, Babuty D, Charbonnier B. Comparison of beta blocker and digoxin alone and in combination for management of patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Am J Cardiol 2009;103: 248–254.

172. Nasr IA, Bouzamondo A, Hulot JS, Dubourg O, Le Heuzey JY, Lechat P. Prevention of atrial fibrillation onset by beta-blocker treatment in heart failure: a meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 2007;28:457–462.

173. Khand AU, Rankin AC, Martin W, Taylor J, Gemmell I, Cleland JG. Carvedilol alone or in combination with digoxin for the management of atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure? J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:1944–1951.

174. Farshi R, Kistner D, Sarma JS, Longmate JA, Singh BN. Ventricular rate control in chronic atrial fibrillation during daily activity and programmed exercise: a crossover open-label study of five drug regimens. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33:304–310.

175. Kumar A. Intravenous amiodarone for therapy of atrial fibrillation and flutter in critically ill patients with severely depressed left ventricular function. South Med J 1996;89:779–785.

176. Gasparini M, Regoli F, Galimberti P, Ceriotti C, Cappelleri A. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure patients with atrial fibrillation. Europace 2009;11 Suppl 5:v82–v86.

177. Deedwania PC, Singh BN, Ellenbogen K, Fisher S, Fletcher R, Singh SN. Spontaneous conversion and maintenance of sinus rhythm by amiodarone in patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation: observations from the veterans affairs congestive heart failure survival trial of antiarrhythmic therapy (CHF-STAT). The Department of Veterans Affairs CHF-STAT Investigators. Circulation 1998;98:2574–2579.

178. Shelton RJ, Clark AL, Goode K, Rigby AS, Houghton T, Kaye GC, Cleland JG. A randomised, controlled study of rate versus rhythm control in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation and heart failure: (CAFE-II Study). Heart 2009;95:924–930.

179. Aizer A, Gaziano JM, Cook NR, Manson JE, Buring JE, Albert CM. Relation of vigorous exercise to risk of atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 2009;103:1572–1577.

180. Mozaffarian D, Furberg CD, Psaty BM, Siscovick D. Physical activity and incidence of atrial fibrillation in older adults: the cardiovascular health study. Circulation 2008;118: 800–807.

181. Mont L, Sambola A, Brugada J, Vacca M, Marrugat J, Elosua R, Pare C, Azqueta M, Sanz G. Long-lasting sport practice and lone atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2002;23:477–482.

182. Heidbuchel H, Anne W, Willems R, Adriaenssens B, Van de Werf F, Ector H. Endurance sports is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation after ablation for atrial flutter. Int J Cardiol 2006;107:67–72.

183. Heidbuchel H, Panhuyzen-Goedkoop N, Corrado D, Hoffmann E, Biffi A, Delise P, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C, Vanhees L, Ivarhoff P, Dorwarth U, Pelliccia A. Recommendations for participation in leisure-time physical activity and competitive sports in patients with arrhythmias and potentially arrhythmogenic conditions Part I: supraventricular arrhythmias and pacemakers. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2006;13:475–484.

184. Calvo N, Mont L, Tamborero D, Berruezo A, Viola G, Guasch E, Nadal M, Andreu D, Vidal B, Sitges M, Brugada J. Efficacy of circumferential pulmonary vein ablation of atrial fibrillation in endurance athletes. Europace 2010;12:30–36.

185. Wyse DG. Pharmacotherapy for rhythm management in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation. J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2009;25:25–29.

186. Eliahou HE, Silverberg DS, Reisin E, Romem I, Mashiach S, Serr DM. Propranolol for the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1978;85:431–436.

187. Bates SM, Greer IA, Pabinger I, Sofaer S, Hirsh J. Venous thromboembolism, thrombophilia, antithrombotic therapy, and pregnancy: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008;133:p844S–886S.

188. Crystal E, Garfinkle MS, Connolly SS, Ginger TT, Sleik K, Yusuf SS. Interventions for preventing post-operative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing heart surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;4:CD003611.

189. Burgess DC, Kilborn MJ, Keech AC. Interventions for prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation and its complications after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 2006;27:2846–2857.

190. Bagshaw SM, Galbraith PD, Mitchell LB, Sauve R, Exner DV, Ghali WA. Prophylactic amiodarone for prevention of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis. Ann Tho-rac Surg 2006;82:1927–1937.

191. Patel AA, White CM, Gillespie EL, Kluger J, Coleman CI. Safety of amiodarone in the prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2006;63:829–837.

192. Buckley MS, Nolan PE Jr, Slack MK, Tisdale JE, Hilleman DE, Copeland JG. Amiodarone prophylaxis for atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: meta-analysis of dose response and timing of initiation. Pharmacotherapy 2007;27:360–368.

193. Miller S, Crystal E, Garfinkle M, Lau C, Lashevsky I, Connolly SJ. Effects of magnesium on atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis. Heart 2005;91:618–623.

194. Ho KM, Tan JA. Benefits and risks of corticosteroid prophylaxis in adult cardiac surgery: a dose–response meta-analysis. Circulation 2009;119:1853–1866.

195. Daoud EG, Snow R, Hummel JD, Kalbfleisch SJ, Weiss R, Augostini R. Temporary atrial epicardial pacing as prophylaxis against atrial fibrillation after heart surgery: a meta-analysis. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2003;14:127–132.

196. Dunning J, Treasure T, Versteegh M, Nashef SA. Guidelines on the prevention and management of de novo atrial fibrillation after cardiac and thoracic surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2006;30:852–872.

197. Daoud EG. Management of atrial fibrillation in the post-cardiac surgery setting. Cardiol Clin 2004;22:159–166.

198. Mathew JP, Fontes ML, Tudor IC, Ramsay J, Duke P, Mazer CD, Barash PG, Hsu PH, Mangano DT. A multicenter risk index for atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. JAMA 2004;291:1720–1729.

199. Wellens HJ. Should catheter ablation be performed in asymptomatic patients with Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome? When to perform catheter ablation in asymptomatic patients with a Wolff–Parkinson–White electrocardiogram. Circulation 2005;112: 2201–2297; discussion 2216.

200. Pappone C, Santinelli V, Manguso F, Augello G, Santinelli O, Vicedomini G, Gulletta S, Mazzone P, Tortoriello V, Pappone A, Dicandia C, Rosanio S. A randomized study of prophylactic catheter ablation in asymptomatic patients with the Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1803–1811.

201. Chen MS, McCarthy PM, Lever HM, Smedira NG, Lytle BL. Effectiveness of atrial fibrillation surgery in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 2004;93: 373–375.

202. Maron BJ, Olivotto I, Bellone P, Conte MR, Cecchi F, Flygenring BP, Casey SA, Gohman TE, Bongioanni S, Spirito P. Clinical profile of stroke in 900 patients with hypertrophic car-diomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:301–307.


Views: 503


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 1819-6446 (Print)
ISSN 2225-3653 (Online)