Preview

Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology

Advanced search

GUIDELINES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE (2005)

Full Text:

About the Author



Russian Federation


References

1. The Task Force on Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology. Guidelines for the diagnosis of heart failure. Eur Heart J 1995; 16:741-751.

2. The Task Force of the Working Group on Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology. The treatment of heart failure. Eur Heart J 1997;18:736-753.

3. Remme WJ, Swedberg K. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of CHF. Eur Heart J 2001;22:1527-1560.

4. Working Group Report. How to diagnose diastolic heart failure? European Study Group on Diastolic Heart Failure. Eur Heart J 1998;19:990-1003.

5. Mosterd A, Hoes AW, de Bruyne MC et al. Prevalence of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction in the general population. Eur Heart J 1999;20:447-455.

6. McKee PA, Castelli WP, McNamara PM et al. The natural history of congestive heart failure: the Framingham study. N Engl J Med 971;285:1441-1446.

7. McMurray J, McDonagh T, Morrison CE et al. Trends in hospitalization for heart failure in Scotland 1980-1990. Eur Heart J 1993;14:1158-1162.

8. Murdoch DR, Love MP, Robb SD et al. Importance of heart failure as a cause of death. Changing contribution to overall mortality and coronary heart disease mortality in Scotland 1979-1992. Eur Heart J 1998;19:1829-1835.

9. Cleland JG, Gemmell I, Khand A et al. Is the prognosis of heart failure improving? Eur J Heart Fail 1999;1:229-241.

10. Cleland JG, Khand A, Clark A. The heart failure epidemic: exactly how big is it? Eur Heart J 2001;22:623-626.

11. Cleland JG, Swedberg K, Follath F et al. The EuroHeart Failure survey programmeЧa survey on the quality of care among patients with heart failure in Europe. Part 1: patient characteristics and diagnosis. Eur Heart J 2003;24:442-463.

12. McDonagh TA, Morrison CE, Lawrence A et al. Symptomatic and asymptomatic left-ventricular systolic dysfunction in an urban population. Lancet 1997;350:P829-P833.

13. Senni M, Tribouilloy CM, Rodeheffer RJ et al. Congestive heart failure in the community: trends in incidence and survival in a 10-year period. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:29-34.

14. The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on mortality and the development of heart failure in asymptomatic patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions. N Engl J Med 1992;327:685-691.

15. Cowie MR, Wood DA, Coats AJ et al. Survival of patients with a new diagnosis of heart failure: a population based study. Heart 2000; 83:505-510.

16. MacIntyre K, Capewell S, Stewart S et al. Evidence of improving prognosis in heart failure: trends in case fatality in 66 547 patients hospitalized between 1986 and 1995. Circulation 2000;102: 1126-1131.

17. Schaufelberger M, Swedberg K, Koster M et al. Decreasing oneyear mortality and hospitalization rates for heart failure in Sweden; data from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry 1988 to 2000. Eur Heart J 2004;25:300-307.

18. Blackledge HM, Tomlinson J, Squire IB. Prognosis for patients newly admitted to hospital with heart failure: survival trends in 12 220 index admissions in Leicestershire 1993-2001. Heart 2003;89: 615-620.

19. Wheeldon NM, MacDonald TM, Flucker CJ et al. Echocardiography in CHF in the community. Q J Med 1993;86:17-23.

20. Remes J, Miettinen H, Reunanen A et al. Validity of clinical diagnosis of heart failure in primary health care. Eur Heart J 1991;12:315- 321.

21. Task Force on AHF. Executive summary of the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of AHF: The Task Force on AHF of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2005;26:384-416.

22. McMurray J, Swedberg K, Hogg K. Heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43,:317-327.

23. Vasan RS, Benjamin EJ, Levy D. Prevalence, clinical features and prognosis of diastolic heart failure: an epidemiologic perspective. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995;26:1565-1574.

24. Gandhi SK, Powers JC, Nomeir AM et al. The pathogenesis of acute pulmonary edema associated with hypertension. N Engl J Med 2001;344:17-22.

25. Kawaguchi M, Hay I, Fetics B et al. Combined ventricular systolic and arterial stiffening in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: implications for systolic and diastolic reserve limitations. Circulation 2003;107:714-720.

26. Wood P. Heart Failure. In: Wood P, ed. Diseases of the Heart and Circulation. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode; 1950.

27. Braunwald E. Heart failure: An overview: In: Fishma AP, ed. Heart Failure. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1977.

28. Denolin H, Kuhn H, Krayenbuehl HP et al. The definition of heart failure. Eur Heart J 1983;4:445-448.

29. Poole-Wilson PA. Chronic heart failure causes pathophysiology, prognosis, clinical manifestations, investigation. In: Julian DG, Camm AJ, Fox KM et al. eds. Diseases of the Heart. London: Bailliere-Tindall; 1989. p.48.

30. Wang TJ, Evans JC, Benjamin EJ et al. Natural history of asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction in the community. Circulation 2003;108:977-982.

31. Sutton GC. Epidemiologic aspects of heart failure. Am Heart J 1990;120:1538-1540.

32. Levy D, Larson MG, Vasan RS et al. The progression from hypertension to congestive heart failure [see comments]. JAMA 1996;275: 1557-1562.

33. Uretsky BF, Thygesen K, Armstrong PW et al. Acute coronary findings at autopsy in heart failure patients with sudden death: results from the Assessment of Treatment with Lisinopril And Survival (ATLAS) trial. Circulation 2000;102:611-616.

34. Lipkin DP, Canepa-Anson R, Stephens MR et al. Factors determining symptoms in heart failure: comparison of fast and slow exercise tests. Br Heart J 1986;55:439-445.

35. Puri S, Baker BL, Oakley CM et al. Increased alveolar/capillary membrane resistance to gas transfer in patients with CHF. Br Heart J 1994;72:140-144.

36. Poole-Wilson PA. Relation of pathophysiologic mechanisms to outcome in heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;22:22A-29A.

37. Coats AJ, Adamopoulos S, Meyer TE et al. Effects of physical training in CHF, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. Lancet 1990;335:63-66.

38. Caruana L, Petrie MC, Davie AP et al. Do patients with suspected heart failure and preserved left ventricular systolic function suffer from Уdiastolic heart failureФ or from misdiagnosis? A prospective descriptive study. BMJ 2000;321:215-218.

39. Cleland JG, Oakley CM. Vascular tone in heart failure: the neuroendocrine-therapeutic interface. Br Heart J 1991;66:264-267.

40. Francis GS, Benedict C, Johnstone DE et al. For the SOLVD Investigators. Comparison of neuroendocrine activation in patients with left ventricular dysfunction with and without congestive heart failure. A substudy of the studies of left ventricular dysfunction (SOLVD). Circulation 1990;82:1724-1729.

41. Swedberg K. Importance of neuroendocrine activation in CHF. Impact on treatment strategies. Review. Eur J Heart Fail 2000;2:229-233.

42. Mancia G, Seravalle G, Giannattasio C et al. Reflex cardiovascular control in congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1992;69:17G- 22G.

43. Packer M. How should physicians view heart failure? The philosophical and physiological evolution of three conceptual models of the disease. Am J Cardiol 1993;71:3.

44. Mann DL, Basic mechanisms in congestive heart failure. Recognizing the role of proinflammatory cytokines. Review. Chest 1994;105: 897-904.

45. Wilson JR, Mancini DM, Dunkman WB. Exertional fatigue due to skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with heart failure. Circulation 1993;87:470-475.

46. Gadsboll N, Hoilund-Carlsen PF, Nielsen GG et al. Symptoms and signs of heart failure in patients with myocardial infarction: reproducibility and relationship to chest X-ray, radionuclide ventriculography and right heart catheterization. Eur Heart J 1989;10: 1017- 1028.

47. Marantz PR TJW-SSS, Budner N, Lense L et al. The relationship between left ventricular systolic function and congestive heart failure diagnosed by clinical criteria. Circulation 1988;77:607-612.

48. Butman SM, Ewy GA, Standen JR et al. Bedside cardiovascular examination in patients with severe CHF: importance of rest or inducible jugular venous distension. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;22:968-974.

49. Stevenson LW, Perloff JK. The limited reliability of physical signs for estimating haemodynamics in CHF. JAMA 1989;10: 884-888.

50. Folland ED, Kriegel BJ, Henderson WG et al. Implications of third heart sounds in patients with valvular heart disease. The Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study on Valvular Heart Disease. N Engl J Med 1992;327:458-462.

51. Ishmail A, Wing S, Ferguson J et al. Interobserver agreement by ausculation in the presence of a third heart sound in patients with congestive heart failure. Chest 1987;91:870-873.

52. Spiteri MA, Cook DG, Clarke SW. Reliability of eliciting physical signs in examination of the chest. Lancet 1988;1:873-875.

53. Adams KF, Zannad F. Clinical definition and epidemiology of advanced heart failure. Am Heart J 1998;135:S204-S215.

54. Drazner MH, Rame JE, Stevenson LW et al. Prognostic importance of elevated jugular venous pressure and a third heart sound in patients with heart failure. N Engl J Med 2001;345:574-581.

55. Killip T, Kimball JT. Treatment of myocardial infarction in a coronary care unit. A two year experience with 250 patients. Am J Cardiol 1967;20:457-464.

56. Khot UN, Jia G, Moliterno DJ et al. Prognostic importance of physical examination for heart failure in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: the enduring value of Killip classification. JAMA 2003; 290:2174-2181.

57. Rector TS, Cohn JN. Assessment of patient outcome with the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire: reliability and validity during a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pimobendan. Pimobendan Multicenter Research Group. Am Heart J 1992;124:1017-1025.

58. McHorney CA, Ware JE, Raczek AE. The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs. Med Care 1993;31:247-263.

59. Green CP, Porter CB, Bresnahan DR et al. Development and evaluation of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire: a new health status measure for heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:1245-1255.

60. McMurray J, Ostergren J, Pfeffer M et al. Clinical features and contemporary management of patients with low and preserved ejection fraction heart failure: baseline characteristics of patients in the Candesartan in Heart failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) programme. Eur J Heart Fail 2003;5:261-270.

61. Rihal CS, Davis KB, Kennedy JW et al. The utility of clinical, electrocardiographic, and roentgenographic variables in the prediction of left ventricular function. Am J Cardiol 1995;75:220-223.

62. Gillespie ND, McNeill G, Pringle T et al. Cross sectional study of contribution of clinical assessment and simple cardiac investigations to diagnosis of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients admitted with acute dyspnoea. BMJ 1997;314:936-940.

63. Badgett RG, Lucey CR, Mulrow CD. Can the clinical examination diagnose left-sided heart failure in adults? JAMA 1997;277: 1712-1719.

64. Alam M, Rosenhamer G, Hoglund C. Comparability of echocardiography and chest X-ray following myocardial infarction. J Intern Med 1989;226:171-175.

65. Kono T, Suwa M, Hanada H et al. Clinical significance of normal cardiac silhouette in dilated cardiomyopathyЧevaluation based upon echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Jpn Circ J 1992;56:359-365.

66. Madsen EB, Gilpin E, Slutsky RA et al. Usefulness of the chest X-ray for predicting abnormal left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 1984;108:1431-1436.

67. McNamara RF, Carleen E, Moss AJ. Estimating left ventricular ejection fraction after myocardial infarction by various clinical parameters. Am J Cardiol 1988;62:192-196.

68. Petrie MC, McMurray JV. It cannot be cardiac failure because the heart is not enlarged on the chest X-ray1. Eur J Heart Fail 2003;5:117-119.

69. Badgett RG, Mulrow CD, Otto PM et al. How well can the chest radiograph diagnose left ventricular dysfunction? J Gen Intern Med 1996;11:625-634.

70. Miniati M, Pistolesi M, Paoletti P et al. Objective radiographic criteria to differentiate cardiac, renal, and injury lung edema. Invest Radiol 1988;23:433-440.

71. Kostuk W, Barr JW, Simon AL et al. Correlations between the chest film and haemodynamics in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 1973;48:624-632.

72. Chakko S, Woska D, Martinez H et al. Clinical, radiographic, and haemodynamic correlations in chronic congestive heart failure: conflicting results may lead to inappropriate care. Am J Med 1991;90:353-359.

73. Kundel HL, Revesz G. Digital analysis of chest radiographs in pulmonary vascular congestion. Radiology 1982;143:407-410.

74. Grover M SRA, Higgins CB, Shabetai R. Extravascular lung water in patients with congestive heart failure. Radiology 1983;147:659-662.

75. Ezekowitz JA. Anaemia is common in heart failure and is associated with poor outcomes: insights from a cohort of 12 065 patients with new-onset heart failure. Circulation 2003;107:223-225.

76. Lerman A, Gibbons RJ, Rodeheffer RJ et al. Circulating N-terminal atrial natriuretic peptide as a marker for symptomless left-ventricular dysfunction. Lancet 1993; 341: 1105-1109.

77. McDonagh TA, Robb SD, Murdoch DR et al. Biochemical detection of left-ventricular systolic dysfunction. Lancet 1998;351:9-13.

78. Groenning BA, Nilsson JC, Sondergaard L et al. Evaluation of impaired left ventricular ejection fraction and increased dimensions by multiple neurohumoral plasma concentrations. Eur J Heart Fail 2001;3:699-708.

79. Cowie MR, Struthers AD, Wood DA et al. Value of natriuretic peptides in assessment of patients with possible new heart failure in primary care. Lancet 1997;350:1349-1353.

80. Hobbs FD, Davis RC, Roalfe AK et al. Reliability of N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide assay in diagnosis of heart failure: cohort study in representative and high risk community populations. BMJ 2002;324:1498.

81. Maisel AS, Krishnaswamy P, Nowak RM et al. Rapid measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure. N Engl J Med 2002;347:161-167.

82. Luchner A, Burnett JC, Jougasaki M et al. Evaluation of brain natriuretic peptide as marker of left ventricular dysfunction and hypertrophy in the population. J Hypertens 2000;18:1121-1128.

83. Clerico A, Del Ry S, Maffei S et al. The circulating levels of cardiac natriuretic hormones in healthy adults: effects of age and sex. Clin Chem Lab Med 2002;40:371-377.

84. Tsutamoto T, Wada A, Maeda K et al. Attenuation of compensation of endogenous cardiac natriuretic peptide system in CHF: prognostic role of plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration in patients with chronic symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation 1997;96:509-516.

85. Kruger S, Graf J, Merx MW et al. Brain natriuretic peptide predicts right heart failure in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Am Heart J 2004;147:60-65.

86. Redfield MM, Rodeheffer RJ, Jacobsen SJ et al. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration: impact of age and gender. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:976-982.

87. de Lemos JA, McGuire DK, Drazner MH. B-type natriuretic peptide in cardiovascular disease. Lancet 2003;362:316-322.

88. Otterstad JE, Froeland G, St et al. Accuracy and reproducibility of biplane two-dimensional echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular dimensions and function. Eur Heart J 1997;18:507- 513.

89. Hoglund C, Alam M, Thorstrand C. Atrioventricular valve plane displacement in healthy persons. An echocardiographic study. Acta Med Scand 1988;224:557-562.

90. Tei C, Ling LH, Hodge DO et al. New index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance: a simple and reproducible measure of cardiac functionЧa study in normals and dilated cardiomyopathy. J Cardiol 1995;26:357-366.

91. Berning J, Steensgaard-Hansen F. Early estimation of risk by echocardiographic determination of wall motion index in an unselected population with acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1990; 65:567-576.

92. Willenheimer RB, Israelsson BA, Cline CM et al. Simplified echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart failure. Scand Cardiovasc J 1997;31:9-16.

93. Maurer MS, Spevack D, Burkhoff D et al. Diastolic dysfunction: can it be diagnosed by Doppler echocardiography? J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:1543-1549.

94. Nishimura K, Yamazato A, Aoshima M et al. Problems in patients with use of a ventricular assist device. J Cardiol 1990;20:473-482.

95. Thomas JD, Choong CY, Flachskampf FA et al. Analysis of the early transmitral Doppler velocity curve: effect of primary physiologic changes and compensatory preload adjustment4. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16:644-655.

96. Myreng Y, Smiseth OA, Risoe C. Left ventricular filling at elevated diastolic pressures: relationship between transmitral Doppler flow velocities and atrial contribution. Am Heart J 1990;119:620-626.

97. Sohn DW, Chai IH, Lee DJ et al. Assessment of mitral annulus velocity by Doppler tissue imaging in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30:474-480.

98. Sohn DW, Song JM, Zo JH et al. Mitral annulus velocity in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function in atrial fibrillation. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1999;12:927-931.

99. Nagueh SF, Sun H, Kopelen HA et al. Hemodynamic determinants of the mitral annulus diastolic velocities by tissue Doppler. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:278-285.

100. Appleton CP, Hatle LK, Popp RL. Relation of transmitral flow velocity patterns to left ventricular diastolic function: new insights from a combined haemodynamic and Doppler echocardiographic study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1988;12:426-440.

101. Flachskampf FA, Weyman AE, Guerrero JL et al. Calculation of atrioventricular compliance from the mitral flow profile: analytic and in vitro study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;19:998-1004.

102. Little WC, Ohno M, Kitzman DW et al. Determination of left ventricular chamber stiffness from the time for deceleration of early left ventricular filling. Circulation 1995;92:1933-1939.

103. Dumesnil JG, Gaudreault G, Honos GN et al. Use of Valsalva maneuver to unmask left ventricular diastolic function abnormalities by Doppler echocardiography in patients with coronary artery disease or systemic hypertension1. Am J Cardiol 1991;68:515- 519.

104. Stugaard M, Smiseth OA, Risoe C et al. Intraventricular early diastolic filling during acute myocardial ischaemia, assessment by multigated color m-mode Doppler echocardiography. Circulation 1993;88:2705-2713.

105. Rossvoll O, Hatle LK. Pulmonary venous flow velocities recorded by transthoracic Doppler ultrasound: relation to left ventricular diastolic pressures. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;21:1687-1696.

106. Nagueh SF, Mikati I, Kopelen HA et al. Doppler estimation of left ventricular filling pressure in sinus tachycardia. A new application of tissue doppler imaging. Circulation 1998;98:1644-1650.

107. Appleton CP, Galloway JM, Gonzalez MS et al. Estimation of left ventricular filling pressures using two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography in adult patients with cardiac disease. Additional value of analyzing left atrial size, left atrial ejection fraction and the difference in duration of pulmonary venous and mitral flow velocity at atrial contraction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;22:1972- 1982.

108. Ommen SR, Nishimura RA, Hurrell DG et al. Assessment of right atrial pressure with 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography: a simultaneous catheterization and echocardiographic study. Mayo Clin Proc 2000;75:24-29.

109. Rihal CS, Nishimura RA, Hatle LK et al. Systolic and diastolic dysfunction in patients with clinical diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. Relation to symptoms and prognosis1. Circulation 1994;90: 2772-2779.

110. Giannuzzi P, Temporelli PL, Bosimini E et al. Independent and incremental prognostic value of Doppler-derived mitral deceleration time of early filling in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with left ventricular dysfunction3. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28: 383-390.

111. Pierard LA, Lancellotti P, Benoit T. Myocardial viability. Stress echocardiography vs nuclear medicine. Eur Heart J 1997; 18 (Suppl. D):D117-D123.

112. Williams MJ, Odabashian J, Lauer MS et al. Prognostic value of dobutamine echocardiography in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:132-139.

113. Pasquet A, Robert A, DТHondt AM et al. Prognostic value of myocardial ischaemia and viability in patients with chronic left ventricular ischemic dysfunction. Circulation 1999;100:141-148.

114. Udelson JE, Bonow RO. Radionuclide angiographic evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function. In: Gaasch WH, LeWinter M, eds. Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction and Heart Failure. Malvern, USA: Lea & Febiger; 1994. p167-191.

115. Bellenger NG, Davies LC, Francis JM et al. Reduction in sample size for studies of remodeling in heart failure by the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2000;2:271-278.

116. Grothues F, Moon JC, Bellenger NG et al. Interstudy reproducibility of right ventricular volumes, function, and mass with cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Am Heart J 2004;147:218-223.

117. Al-Saadi N, Nagel E, Gross M et al. Noninvasive detection of myocardial ischaemia from perfusion reserve based on cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Circulation 2000;101:1379-1383.

118. Mahrholdt H, Wagner A, Holly TA et al. Reproducibility of chronic infarct size measurement by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation 2002; 106: 2322-2327.

119. Kim RJ, Wu E, Rafael A et al. The use of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to identify reversible myocardial dysfunction. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 1445-1453.

120. Gerber TC, Fasseas P, Lennon RJ et al. Clinical safety of magnetic resonance imaging early after coronary artery stent placement. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:1295-1298.

121. Martin ET, Coman JA, Shellock FG et al. Magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac pacemaker safety at 1.5-Tesla. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:1315-1324.

122. Cook DG, Shaper AG. Breathlessness, lung function and the risk of heart attack. Eur Heart J 1988;9:1215-1222.

123. McNamara RM, Cionni DJ. Utility of the peak expiratory flow rate in the differentiation of acute dyspnea. Cardiac vs. pulmonary origin. Chest 1992;101:129-132.

124. Kraemer MD, Kubo SH, Rector TS et al. Pulmonary and peripheral vascular factors are important determinants of peak exercise oxygen uptake in patients with heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;21:641-648.

125. Guazzi M, Pontone G, Brambilla R et al. Alveolar-capillary membrane gas conductance: a novel prognostic indicator in CHF. Eur Heart J 2002;23:467-476.

126. Diamopoulon I, Tsintzas OK, Daganou M et al. Contribution of lung function to excercise capacity in patients with CHF. Respiration 1999;66:144-149.

127. Nanas S, Nanas J, Kassiotis C et al. Respiratory muscles performance is related to oxygen kinetics during maximal exercise and early recovery in patients with congestive heart failure. Circulation 1999;100:503-508.

128. Working Group on Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology and Working group on Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology. Recommendations for exercise testing in CHF patients. Eur Heart J 2001;22:37-45.

129. Francis DP, Shamim W, Davies LC et al. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing for prognosis in CHF: continuous and independent prognostic value from VE/VCO(2)slope and peak VO(2). Eur Heart J 2000;21:154-161.

130. Guyatt GH, Sullivan MJ, Thompson PJ et al. The 6-minute walk: a new measure of exercise capacity in patients with CHF. Can Med Assoc J 1985;132:919-923.

131. Bittner V, Weiner DH, Yusuf S et al. Prediction of mortality and morbidity with a 6-minute walk test in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. SOLVD Investigators. JAMA 1993;270:1702- 1707.

132. Cleland JG, Pennell DJ, Ray SG et al. Myocardial viability as a determinant of the ejection fraction response to carvedilol in patients with heart failure (CHRISTMAS trial): randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2003;362:14-21.

133. Dutka DP, Olivotto I, Ward S et al. Plasma neuroendocrine activity in very elderly subjects and patients with and without heart failure. Eur Heart J 1995;16:1223-1230.

134. Doval HC, Nul DR, Grancelli HO et al. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in severe heart failure. Independent marker of increased mortality due to sudden death. GESICA-GEMA Investigators. Circulation 1996;94:3198-3203.

135. Teerlink JR, Jalaluddin M, Anderson S et al. Ambulatory ventricular arrhythmias in patients with heart failure do not specifically predict an increased risk of sudden death. PROMISE (Prospective Randomized Milrinone Survival Evaluation) Investigators. Circulation 2000;101:40-46.

136. Nolan J, Flapan AD, Capewell S et al. Decreased cardiac parasympathetic activity in CHF and its relation to left ventricular function. Br Heart J 1992;67:482-485.

137. Malik M, Camm AJ. Heart rate variability: from facts to fancies. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;22:566-568.

138. Hohnloser SH, Klingenheben T, Zabel M et al. Intraindividual reproducibility of heart rate variability. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1992;15:2211-2214.

139. Mortara A, La Rovere MT, Signorini MG et al. Can power spectral analysis of heart rate variability identify a high risk subgroup of congestive heart failure patients with excessive sympathetic activation? A pilot study before and after heart transplantation. Br Heart J 1994;71:422-430.

140. Panina G, Khot UN, Nunziata E et al. Role of spectral measures of heart rate variability as markers of disease progression in patients with chronic congestive heart failure not treated with angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors. Am Heart J 1996; 131: 153-157.

141. Brouwer J, van Veldhuisen DJ, Man in Сt Veld AJ et al. Prognostic value of heart rate variability during long-term follow-up in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. The Dutch Ibopamine Multicenter Trial Study Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28: 1183- 1189.

142. Ponikowski P, Anker SD, Chua TP et al. Depressed heart rate variability as an independent predictor of death in chronic congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:1645-1650.

143. Philbin EF, Rocco TA, Lindenmuth NW et al. Systolic versus diastolic heart failure in community practice: clinical features, outcomes, and the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Am J Med 2000;109:605-613.

144. Zile MR. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: is this diastolic heart failure? J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:1519-1522.

145. Gustafsson F, Torp-Pedersen C, Brendorp B et al. Long-term survival in patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure: relation to preserved and reduced left ventricular systolic function. Eur Heart J 2003;24:863-870.

146. Felker GM, Shaw LK, OТConnor CM. A standardized definition of ischemic cardiomyopathy for use in clinical research1. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:210-218.

147. Cleland JG, Thygesen K, Uretsky BF et al. Cardiovascular critical event pathways for the progression of heart failure; a report from the ATLAS study. Eur Heart J 2001;22:1601-1612.

148. Waagstein F, Stromblad O, Andersson B et al. Increased exercise ejection fraction and reversed remodeling after long-term treatment with metoprolol in congestive heart failure: a randomized, stratified, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in mild to moderate heart failure due to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Eur J Heart Fail 2003;5:679-691.

149. Shakar SF, Lowes BD, Lindenfeld J et al. Peak oxygen consumption and outcome in heart failure patients chronically treated with beta-blockers. J Card Fail 2004;10:15-20.

150. Peterson LR, Schechtman KB, Ewald GA et al. The effect of betaadrenergic blockers on the prognostic value of peak exercise oxygen uptake in patients with heart failure. J Heart Lung Transplant 2003;22:70-77.

151. Cowburn PJ, Cleland JG, Coats AJ et al. Risk stratification in CHF. Eur Heart J 1998; 19: 696-710.

152. Eichhorn EJ. Prognosis determination in heart failure. Am J Med 2001;110 (Suppl. 7A):14S-36S.

153. Bouvy ML, Heerdink ER, Leufkens HG et al. Predicting mortality in patients with heart failure: a pragmatic approach. Heart 2003;89: 605-609.

154. Huikuri HV, Makikallio TH, Raatikainen MJ et al. Prediction of sudden cardiac death: appraisal of the studies and methods assessing the risk of sudden arrhythmic death9. Circulation 2003;108:110-115.

155. Lewis EF, Moye LA, Rouleau JL et al. Predictors of late development of heart failure in stable survivors of myocardial infarction: the CARE study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:1446-1453.

156. Zornoff LA, Skali H, Pfeffer MA et al. Right ventricular dysfunction and risk of heart failure and mortality after myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:1450-1455.

157. St John SM, Lee D, Rouleau JL et al. Left ventricular remodeling and ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction. Circulation 2003;107:2577-2582.

158. Koelling TM, Aaronson KD, Cody RJ et al. Prognostic significance of mitral regurgitation and tricuspid regurgitation in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Am Heart J 2002;144:524-529.

159. Nohria A, Tsang SW, Fang JC et al. Clinical assessment identifies haemodynamic profiles that predict outcomes in patients admitted with heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:1797-1804.

160. Ghio S, Gavazzi A, Campana C et al. Independent and additive prognostic value of right ventricular systolic function and pulmonary artery pressure in patients with CHF. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:183-188.

161. Polak JF, Holman BL, Wynne J et al. Right ventricular ejection fraction: an indicator of increased mortality in patients with congestive heart failure associated with coronary artery disease1. J Am Coll Cardiol 1983;2:217-224.

162. Pozzoli M, Traversi E, Cioffi G et al. Loading manipulations improve the prognostic value of Doppler evaluation of mitral flow in patients with CHF. Circulation 1997;95:1222-1230.

163. Stevenson LW, Tillisch JH, Hamilton M et al. Importance of haemodynamic response to therapy in predicting survival with ejection fraction less than or equal to 20% secondary to ischemic or nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 1990;66:1348-1354.

164. Dries DL, Exner DV, Domanski MJ et al. The prognostic implications of renal insufficiency in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:681-689.

165. Gronda E, Mangiavacchi M, Frigerio M et al. Determination of candidacy for mechanical circulatory support: importance of clinical indices. J Heart Lung Transplant 2000; 19: S83-S88.

166. Forman DE, Butler J, Wang Y et al. Incidence, predictors at admission, and impact of worsening renal function among patients hospitalized with heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:61-67.

167. Campana C, Gavazzi A, Berzuini C et al. Predictors of prognosis in patients awaiting heart transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 1993;12:756-765.

168. Mancini DM, Eisen H, Kussmaul W et al. Value of peak exercise oxygen consumption for optimal timing of cardiac transplantation in ambulatory patients with heart failure. Circulation 1991;83: 778-786.

169. Opasich C, Pinna GD, Bobbio M et al. Peak exercise oxygen consumption in CHF: toward efficient use in the individual patient. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;31:766-775.

170. Corra U, Mezzani A, Bosimini E et al. Ventilatory response to exercise improves risk stratification in patients with CHF and intermediate functional capacity. Am Heart J 2002;143:418-426.

171. Wilhelmsen L, Rosengren A, Eriksson H et al. Heart failure in the general population of menЧmorbidity, risk factors and prognosis. J Intern Med 2001;249:253-261.

172. Teerlink JR, Goldhaber SZ, Pfeffer MA. An overview of contemporary etiologies of congestive heart failure. Am Heart J 1991;121: 1852-1853.

173. Turnbull F. Effects of different blood-pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events: results of prospectively-designed overviews of randomized trials. Lancet 2003;362:1527-1535.

174. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs. diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA 2002;288:2981-2997.

175. The EUropean trial on Reduction Of cardiac events with Perindopril in stable coronary Artery disease Investigators. Efficacy of perindopril in reduction of cardiovascular events among patients with stable coronary artery disease: randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled, multicentre trial (the EUROPA study). Lancet 2003;362: 782-788.

176. Brenner BM, Cooper ME, de Zeeuw D et al. Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med 2001;345:861-869.

177. Dahlof B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomized trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002;359:995-1003.

178. Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J et al. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in highrisk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000;342:145-153.

179. Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Clarke WR et al. Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2001;345: 851-860.

180. Kjekshus J, Pedersen TR, Olsson AG et al. The effects of simvastatin on the incidence of heart failure in patients with coronary heart disease. J Card Fail 1997;3:249-254.

181. Yusuf S, Zhao F, Mehta SR et al. Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without STsegment elevation. N Engl J Med 2001;345:494-502.

182. Good CB, McDermott L, McCloskey B. Diet and serum potassium in patients on ACE-inhibitors. JAMA 1995;274:538.

183. Anker SD, Chua TP, Ponikowski P et al. Hormonal changes and catabolic/anabolic imbalance in CHF and their importance for cardiac cachexia. Circulation 1997;96:526-534.

184. Anker SD, Ponikowski P, Varney S et al. Wasting as independent risk factor for mortality in CHF. Lancet 1997;349: 1050-1053.

185. DeBusk R, Drory Y, Goldstein I et al. Management of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease: recommendations of The Princeton Consensus Panel. Am J Cardiol 2000;86:175-181.

186. Feenstra J, Grobbee DE, Remme WJ et al. Drug-induced heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33:1152-1162.

187. Piepoli MF, Davos C, Francis DP et al. Exercise training meta-analysis of trials in patients with CHF (ExTraMATCH). BMJ 2004;328:189.

188. Pfeffer MA, Braunwald E, Moye LA et al. Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Results of the survival and ventricular enlargement trial. The SAVE Investigators. N Engl J Med 1992;327: 669-677.

189. Kober L, Torp-Pedersen C, Carlsen JE et al. Effects on mortality by trandolapril after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1995;333: 1670-1676.

190. Jong P, Yusuf S, Rousseau MF et al. Effect of enalapril on 12-year survival and life expectancy in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a follow-up study. Lancet 2003;361:1843-1848.

191. Flather M, Yusuf S, Kober L et al. Long-term ACE-inhibitor therapy in patients with heart failure or left-ventricular dysfunction: a systematic overview of data from individual patients. ACEInhibitor Myocardial Infarction Collaborative Group. Lancet 2000;355: 1575-1581.

192. The CONSENSUS Trial Study Group. Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure. Results of the Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS). N Engl J Med 1987;316:1429-1435.

193. The Acute Infarction Ramipril Efficacy. Effect of ramipril on mortality and morbidity of survivors of acute myocardial infarction with clinical evidence of heart failure. Lancet 1993;342:821-828.

194. Ljungman S, Kjekshus J, Swedberg K. Renal function in severe congestive heart failure during treatment with enalapril. The Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS) Trial. Am J Cardiol 1992;70:479-487.

195. Bakris GL, Weir MR. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitorassociated elevations in serum creatinine: is this a cause for concern? Arch Intern Med 2000;160:685-693.

196. Packer M, Poole-Wilson PA, Armstrong PW et al. Comparative effects of low and high doses of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril, on morbidity and mortality in CHF. ATLAS Study Group. Circulation 1999;100:2312-2318.

197. Kaddoura S, Patel D, Parameshwar Jet al. Objective assessment of the response to treatment of severe heart failure using a 9-minute walk test on a patient-powered treadmill. J Card Fail 1996;2:133- 139.

198. Bayliss J, Norell M, Canepa-Anson R et al. Untreated heart failure: clinical and neuroendocrine effects of introducing diuretics. Br Heart J 1987;57:17-22.

199. Faris R, Flather M, Purcell H et al. Current evidence supporting the role of diuretics in heart failure: a meta analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Cardiol 2002;82:149-158.

200. Vargo DL, Kramer WG, Black PK et al. Bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of torsemide and furosemide in patients with congestive heart failure. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1995;57:601-609.

201. Murray MD, Deer MM, Ferguson JA et al. Open-label randomized trial of torsemide compared with furosemide therapy for patients with heart failure. Am J Med 2001;111:513-520.

202. Channer KS, McLean KA, Lawson-Matthew P et al. Combination diuretic treatment in severe heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. Br Heart J 1994;71:146-150.

203. van Vliet AA, Donker AJ, Nauta JJ et al. Spironolactone in congestive heart failure refractory to high-dose loop diuretic and lowdose angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Am J Cardiol 1993;71:21A-28A.

204. Edmonds CJ, Jasani B. Total-body potassium in hypertension patients during prolonged diuretic therapy. Lancet 1972;2:8-12.

205. The Capricorn Investigators. Effect of carvedilol on outcome after myocardial infarction in patients with left-ventricular dysfunction: the CAPRICORN randomized trial. Lancet 2001;357:1385- 1390.

206. The Beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial Investigators. A trial of the beta-blocker bucindolol in patients with advanced CHF. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1659-1667.

207. Poole-Wilson PA, Swedberg K, Cleland JG et al. Comparison of carvedilol and metoprolol on clinical outcomes in patients with CHF in the Carvedilol Or Metoprolol European Trial (COMET): randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2003;362:7-13.

208. Packer M, Bristow MR, Cohn JN et al. The effect of carvedilol on morbidity and mortality in patients with CHF. US Carvedilol Heart Failure Study Group. N Engl J Med 1996;334: 1349-1355.

209. Australia/New Zealand Heart Failure Research Collaborative Group. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of carvedilol in patients with congestive heart failure due to ischaemic heart disease. Lancet 1997;349:375-380.

210. Packer M, Coats AJ, Fowler MB et al. Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe CHF. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1651-1658.

211. The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): a randomized trial. Lancet 1999;353:9-13.

212. Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in CHF: Metoprolol CR/XL Randomized Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure (MERIT-HF). Lancet 1999;353:2001-2007.

213. The RESOLVD Investigators. Effects of metoprolol CR in patients with ischemiic and dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation 2000; 101: 378-384.

214. Erdmann E, Lechat P, Verkenne P et al. Results from post-hoc analyses of the CIBIS II trial: effect of bisoprolol in high-risk patiengroups with CHF. Eur J Heart Fail 2001; 3: 469-479.

215. Packer M, Antonopoulos GV, Berlin JA et al. Comparative effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on left ventricular ejection fraction in heart failure: results of a meta-analysis1. Am Heart J 2001;141: 899-907.

216. Flather MD, Shibata MC, Coats AJ et al. Randomized trial to determine the effect of nebivolol on mortality and cardiovascular hospital admission in elderly patients with heart failure (SENIORS). Eur Heart J 2005;26:215-225.

217. Exner DV, Dries DL, Waclawiw MA et al. Beta-adrenergic blocking agent use and mortality in patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a post hoc analysis of the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33:916-923.

218. Vantrimpont P, Rouleau JL, Wun CC et al. Additive beneficial effects of beta-blockers to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the Survival and Ventricular Enlargement (SAVE) Study. SAVE Investigators. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;29:229-236.

219. Wikstrand J, Hjalmarson A, Waagstein F et al. Dose of metoprolol CR/XL and clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure: analysis of the experience in metoprolol CR/XL randomized intervention trial in CHF (MERIT-HF). J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:491- 498.

220. Simon T, Mary-Krause M, Funck-Brentano C et al. Bisoprolol doseresponse relationship in patients with congestive heart failure: a subgroup analysis in the cardiac insufficiency bisoprolol study (CIBIS II). Eur Heart J 2003;24:552-559.

221. Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ et al. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 1999;341:709-717.

222. Pitt B, Remme W, Zannad F et al. Eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1309-1321.

223. Svensson M, Gustafsson F, Galatius S et al. Hyperkalaemia and impaired renal function in patients taking spironolactone for congestive heart failure: retrospective study. BMJ 2003;327:1141- 1142.

224. Juurlink DN, Mamdani MM, Lee DS et al. Rates of hyperkalaemia after publication of the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study. N Engl J Med 2004;351:543-551.

225. Granger CB, McMurray JJ, Yusuf S et al. Effects of candesartan in patients with CHF and reduced left-ventricular systolic function intolerant to angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: the CHARM Alternative trial. Lancet 2003;362:772-776.

226. Young JB, Dunlap ME, Pfeffer MA et al. Mortality and morbidity reduction with candesartan in patients with CHF and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Results of the CHARM Low-Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Trials. Circulation 2004; 110:2618-2625.

227. Pfeffer MA, Swedberg K, Granger CB et al. Effects of candesartan on mortality and morbidity in patients with CHF: the CHARMOverall programme. Lancet 2003;362:759-766.

228. Maggioni AP, Anand I, Gottlieb SO et al. Effects of valsartan on morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure not receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 40:1414-1421.

229. Cohn JN, Tognoni G. A randomized trial of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan in CHF. N Engl J Med 2001; 345:1667- 1675.

230. Pitt B, Poole-Wilson PA, Segal R et al. Effect of losartan compared with captopril on mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure: randomized trialЧthe Losartan Heart Failure Survival Study ELITE II. Lancet 2000;355:1582-1587.

231. Jong P, Demers C, McKelvie RS et al. Angiotensin receptor blockers in heart failure: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:463-470.

232. Coletta AP, Cleland JG, Freemantle N et al. Clinical trials update from the European Society of Cardiology: CHARM, BASEL, EUROPA and ESTEEM. Eur J Heart Fail 2003;5:697-704.

233. Dickstein K, Kjekshus J. Effects of losartan and captopril on mortality and morbidity in high-risk patients after acute myocardial infarction: the OPTIMAAL randomized trial. Optimal Trial in Myocardial Infarction with Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan. Lancet 2002;360:752-760.

234. Pfeffer MA, McMurray JJ, Velazquez EJ et al. Valsartan, captopril, or both in myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1893- 1906.

235. McMurray JJ, Ostergren J, Swedberg K et al. Effects of candesartan in patients with CHF and reduced left-ventricular systolic function taking angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: the CHARM- Added trial. Lancet 2003;362:767-771.

236. Khand AU, Rankin AC, Kaye GC et al. Systematic review of the management of atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure. Eur Heart J 2000;21:614-632.

237. Khand AU, Rankin AC, Martin W et al. Carvedilol alone or in combination with digoxin for the management of atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure? J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:1944- 1951.

238. The effect of digoxin on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. The Digitalis Investigation Group. N Engl J Med 1997;336:525-533.

239. Rathore SS, Wang Y, Krumholz HM. Sex-based differences in the effect of digoxin for the treatment of heart failure. N Engl J Med 2002;347:1403-1411.

240. Rathore SS, Curtis JP, Wang Y et al. Association of serum digoxin concentration and outcomes in patients with heart failure. JAMA 2003;289:871-878.

241. Hood WB, Dans AL, Guyatt GH et al. Digitalis for treatment of congestive heart failure in patients in sinus rhythm: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Card Fail 2004;10:155-164.

242. Cohn JN, Archibald DG, Phil M et al. Effect of vasodilator therapy on mortality in chronic congestive heart failure. Results of a veterans administration cooperation study. N Engl J Med 1986;314: 1547-1552.

243. Cohn JN, Johnson G, Ziesche S et al. A comparison of enalapril with hydralazine-isosorbide dinitrate in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1991;325:303-310.

244. Taylor AL, Ziesche S, Yancy C et al. Combination of isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine in blacks with heart failure. N Engl J Med 2004;351:2049-2057.

245. Packer M, Lee WH, Kessler PD et al. Prevention and reversal of nitrate tolerance in patients with congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1987;317:799-804.

246. Gogia H, Mehra A, Parikh S et al. Prevention of tolerance to haemodynamic effects of nitrates with concomitant use of hydralazine in patients with CHF. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995;26: 1575-1580.

247. Cohn JN, Ziesche S, Smith R et al. Effect of the calcium antagonist felodipine as supplementary vasodilator therapy in patients with CHF treated with enalapril: V-HeFT III. Vasodilator-Heart Failure Trial (V-HeFT) Study Group. Circulation 1997;96: 856-863.

248. Thackray S, Witte K, Clark AL et al. Clinical trials update: OPTIMECHF, PRAISE-2, ALL-HAT. Eur J Heart Fail 2000;2:209-212.

249. Intravenous nesiritide vs nitroglycerin for treatment of decompensated congestive heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;287:1531-1540.

250. Metra M, Nodari S, DТAloia A et al. Beta-blocker therapy influences the haemodynamic response to inotropic agents in patients with heart failure: a randomized comparison of dobutamine and enoximone before and after chronic treatment with metoprolol or carvedilol. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:1248-1258.

251. Cuffe MS, Califf RM, Adams KF et al. Short-term intravenous milrinone for acute exacerbation of CHF: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;287:1541-1547.

252. Follath F, Cleland JG, Just H et al. Efficacy and safety of intravenous levosimendan compared with dobutamine in severe low-output heart failure (the LIDO study): a randomized double-blind trial. Lancet 2002;360:196-202.

253. Cleland JG, Cowburn PJ, Falk RH. Should all patients with atrial fibrillation receive warfarin? Evidence from randomized clinical trials. Eur Heart J 1996;17:674-681.

254. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ 2002; 324: 71-86.

255. Jafri SM. Hypercoagulability in heart failure. Semin Thromb Hemost 1997;23:543-545.

256. Loh E, Sutton MS, Wun CC et al. Ventricular dysfunction and the risk of stroke after myocardial infarction3. N Engl J Med 1997;336: 251-257.

257. The Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. Predictors of thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation: I. Clinical features of patients at risk. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:1-5.

258. Natterson PD, Stevenson WG, Saxon LA et al. Risk of arterial embolization in 224 patients awaiting cardiac transplantation. Am Heart J 1995;129:564-570.

259. Ciaccheri M, Castelli G, Cecchi F et al. Lack of correlation between intracavitary thrombosis detected by cross sectional echocardiography and systemic emboli in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Br Heart J 1989;62:26-29.

260. Teo KK, Yusuf S, Pfeffer M et al. Effects of long-term treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors in the presence or absence of aspirin: a systematic review. Lancet 2002;360:1037-1043.

261. Cleland JG, Findlay I, Jafri S et al. The Warfarin/Aspirin Study in Heart failure (WASH): a randomized trial comparing antithrombotic strategies for patients with heart failure. Am Heart J 2004;148:157-164.

262. Cleland JG, Ghosh J, Freemantle N et al. Clinical trials update and cumulative meta-analyses from the American College of Cardiology: WATCH, SCD-HeFT, DINAMIT, CASINO, INSPIRE, STRATUSUS, RIO- Lipids and cardiac resynchronisation therapy in heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 2004;6:501-508.

263. The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial. Preliminary report: effect of encainide and flecainide on mortality in a randomized trial of arrhythmia suppression after myocardial infarction. New Engl J Med 1989;321:406-412.

264. Lo J, Swedberg K, McMurray J et al. Expert consensus 'pez-Sendo'n document on beta-adrenergic receptor blockers. Eur Heart J 2004; 25:1341-1362.

265. Steinbeck G, Andresen D, Bach P et al. A comparison of electrophysiologically guided antiarrhythmic drug therapy with betablocker therapy in patients with symptomatic, sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias. N Engl J Med 1992;327:987-992.

266. Amiodarone Trials Meta-Analysis Investigators. Effect of prophylactic amiodarone on mortality after acute myocardial infarction and in congestive heart failure: meta-analysis of individual data from 6500 patients in randomized trials. Amiodarone Trials MetaAnalysis Investigators. Lancet 1997;350:1417-1424.

267. Levy S, Breithardt G, Campbell RW et al. Atrial fibrillation: current knowledge and recommendations for management. Working Group on Arrhythmias of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 1998;19:1294-1320.

268. Singh SN, Fletcher RD, Fisher SG et al. Amiodarone in patients with congestive heart failure and asymptomatic ventricular arrhythmia. N Engl J Med 1995;333:77-82.

269. Bardy GH, Lee KL, Mark DB et al. Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 2005;352:225-237.

270. Torp-Pedersen C, Moller M, Bloch-Thomsen PE et al. Dofetilide in patients with congestive heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction. Danish Investigations of Arrhythmia and Mortality on Dofetilide Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999;341:857-865.

271. Haque WA, Boehmer J, Clemson BS et al. Hemodynamic effects of supplemental oxygen administration in congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:353-357.

272. Neff TA, Petty TL. Long-term continuous oxygen therapy in chronic airway obstruction. Mortality in relationship to cor pulmonale, hypoxia, and hypercapnia. Ann Intern Med 1970; 72: 621-626.

273. Cleland JG, Freemantle N, Ball SG et al. The heart failure revascularisation trial (HEART): rationale, design and methodology. Eur J Heart Fail 2003;5:295-303.

274. Argenziano M, Spotnitz HM, Whang W et al. Risk stratification for coronary bypass surgery in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Analysis of the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patch Trial Database. Circulation 1999;100:II-119-II-124.

275. Bolling SF, Deeb GM, Brunsting LA et al. Early outcome of mitral valve reconstruction in patients with end-stage cardiomyopathy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1995;109:676-683.

276. Bolling SF, Pagani FD, Deeb GM et al. Intermediate-term outcome of mitral reconstruction in cardiomyopathy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1998;115:381-386.

277. Dor V, Sabatier M, Di Donato M et al. Efficacy of endoventricular patch plasty in large postinfarction akinetic scar and severe left ventricular dysfunction: comparison with a series of large dyskinetic scars. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1998; 116:50-59.

278. Jatene AD. Left ventricular aneurysmectomy. Resection or reconstruction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1985;89:321-331.

279. Athanasuleas CL, Stanley AW, Buckberg GD et al. Surgical anterior ventricular endocardial restoration (SAVER) in the dilated remodeled ventricle after anterior myocardial infarction. RESTORE group. Reconstructive Endoventricular Surgery, returning Torsion Original Radius Elliptical Shape to the LV. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37:1199-1209.

280. Buckberg GD, Coghlan HC, Torrent-Guasp F. The structure and function of the helical heart and its buttress wrapping. VI. Geometric concepts of heart failure and use for structural correction. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001;13:386-401

281. Menicanti L, Dor V, Buckberg GD et al. Inferior wall restoration: anatomic and surgical considerations. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001;13:504-513.

282. Athanasuleas CL, Buckberg GD, Menicanti L et al. Optimizing ventricular shape in anterior restoration. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001;13:459-467.

283. Athanasuleas CL, Stanley AW, Buckberg GD et al. Surgical anterior ventricular endocardial restoration (SAVER) for dilated ischemic cardiomyopathy. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001;13:448- 458.

284. Baretti R, Mizuno A, Buckberg GD et al. Batista procedure: elliptical modeling against spherical distention. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2000;17:52-57.

285. Doenst T, Ahn-Veelken L, Schlensak C et al. Left ventricular reduction for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy as alternative to transplantЧtruth or dare?. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001;49:70-74.

286. Guccione JM, Salahieh A, Moonly SM et al. Myosplint decreases wall stress without depressing function in the failing heart: a finite element model study. Ann Thorac Surg 2003;76:1171-1180.

287. Fukamachi K, Inoue M, Doi K et al. Device-based left ventricular geometry change for heart failure treatment: developmental work and current status1. J Card Surg 2003;18Suppl. 2:S43-S47.

288. Oz MC, Konertz WF, Kleber FX et al. Global surgical experience with the Acorn cardiac support device. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003; 126:983-991.

289. Linde C, Leclercq C, Rex S et al. Long-term benefits of biventricular pacing in congestive heart failure: results from the MUltisite STimulation in cardiomyopathy (MUSTIC) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 40:111-118.

290. Abraham WT, Fisher WG, Smith AL et al. Cardiac resynchronization in CHF. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1845-1853.

291. Bristow MR, Saxon LA, Boehmer J et al. Cardiac-resynchronization therapy with or without an implantable defibrillator in advanced CHF. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2140-2150.

292. Connolly SJ, Kerr CR, Gent M et al. Effects of physiologic pacing versus ventricular pacing on the risk of stroke and death due to cardiovascular causes. Canadian Trial of Physiologic Pacing Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000;342:1385-1391.

293. Lamas GA, Lee KL, Sweeney MO et al. Ventricular pacing or dualchamber pacing for sinus-node dysfunction. N Engl J Med 2002; 346:1854-1862.

294. Bradley DJ, Bradley EA, Baughman KL et al. Cardiac resynchronization and death from progressive heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 2003;289:730-740.

295. Moss AJ, Hall WJ, Cannom DS et al. Improved survival with an implanted defibrillator in patients with coronary disease at high risk for ventricular arrhythmia. Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 1933- 1940.

296. Moss AJ, Zareba W, Hall WJ et al. Prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator in patients with myocardial infarction and reduced ejection fraction. N Engl J Med 2002;346:877-883.

297. Kadish A, Dyer A, Daubert JP et al. Prophylactic defibrillator implantation in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2151-2158.

298. Jauhar S, Slotwiner DJ. The Economics of ICDs. N Engl J Med 2004;351:2542-2544.

299. Nanthakumar K, Epstein AE, Kay GN et al. Prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction A pooled analysis of 10 primary prevention trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:2166-2172.

300. Desai AS, Fang JC, Maisel WH et al. Implantable defibrillators for the prevention of mortality in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 2004;292:2874-2879.

301. Salukhe TV, Dimopoulos K, Sutton R et al. Life-years gained from defibrillator implantation: markedly nonlinear increase during 3 years of follow-up and its implications. Circulation 2004;109: 1848-1853.

302. Hosenpud JD, Bennett LE, Keck BM et al. The Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: sixteenth official reportЧ1999. J Heart Lung Transplant 1999;18:611-626.

303. Paris W, Woodbury A, Thompson S et al. Returning to work after heart transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 1993;12:46-53.

304. Bennett LE, Keck BM, Hertz MI et al. Worldwide thoracic organ transplantation: a report from the UNOS/ISHLT international registry for thoracic organ transplantation. Clin Transpl 2001;25-40.

305. Rose EA, Gelijns AC, Moskowitz AJ et al. Long-term mechanical left ventricular assistance for end-stage heart failure. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1435-1443.

306. Rimondini A, Cipolla CM, Della Bella P et al. Hemofiltration as short-term treatment for refractory congestive heart failure. Am J Med 1987;83:43-48.

307. Dormans TP, Huige RM, Gerlag PG. Chronic intermittent haemofiltration and haemodialysis in end stage CHF with oedema refractory to high dose frusemide. Heart 1996;75:349-351.

308. Cleland JG, Cohen-Solal A, Aguilar JC et al. Management of heart failure in primary care (the IMPROVEMENT of Heart Failure Programme): an international survey. Lancet 2002;360:1631-1639.

309. Fuster V, Ryde LE, Asinger RW et al. ACC/AHA/ESC Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Executive Summary. A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines and Policy Conferences (Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation) Developed in Collaboration With the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Circulation 2001;104:2118-2150.

310. Yusuf S, Pfeffer MA, Swedberg K et al. Effects of candesartan in patients with CHF and preserved left-ventricular ejection fraction: the CHARM-Preserved Trial. Lancet 2003;362: 777-781.

311. Setaro JF, Zaret BL, Schulman DS et al. Usefulness of verapamil for congestive heart failure associated with abnormal left ventricular diastolic filling and normal left ventricular systolic performance. Am J Cardiol 1990;66:981-986.

312. Bonow RO, Dilsizian V, Rosing DR et al. Verapamil-induced improvement in left ventricular diastolic filling and increased exercise tolerance in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: short- and long-term effects. Circulation 1985;72:853-864.

313. Ekman I, Fagerberg B, Skoog I. The clinical implications of cognitive impairment in elderly patients with CHF. J Cardiovasc Nurs 2001;16:47-55.

314. Priori SG, Aliot E, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C et al. Task Force on Sudden Cardiac Death of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2001;22:1374-1450.

315. The Antiarrhythmics versus Implantable Defibrillators. A comparison of antiarrhythmic-drug therapy with implantable defibrillators in patients resuscitated from near-fatal ventricular arrhythmias. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1576-1583.

316. Buxton AE, Lee KL, Fisher JD et al. A randomized study of the prevention of sudden death in patients with coronary artery disease. Multicenter Unsustained Tachycardia Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1882-1890.

317. Wyse DG, Waldo AL, DiMarco JP et al. A comparison of rate control and rhythm control in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2002;347:1825-1833.

318. Olshansky B, Rosenfeld LE, Warner AL et al. The Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study: approaches to control rate in atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:1201-1208.

319. Hynes BJ, Luck JC, Wolbrette DL et al. Atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure. Curr Opin Cardiol 2003;18:32-38.

320. Stevenson WG, Stevenson LW, Middlekauff HR et al. Improving survival for patients with atrial fibrillation and advanced heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28:1458-1463.

321. Gonseth J, Guallar-Castillon P, Banegas JR, Rodriguez-Artalejo F. The effectiveness of disease management programmes in reducing hospital readmission in older patients with heart failure: a systematic review and metaanalysis of published reports. Eur Heart J 2004;25:1570-1595.

322. McAlister FA, Stewart S, Ferrua S, McMurray JJ. Multidisciplinary strategies of the management of heart failure patients at high risk for admission. A systematic review of randomized trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:810-819.

323. Stewart S, Pearson S, Horowitz JD. Effects of a home-based intervention among patients with congestive heart failure discharged from acute hospital care. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1067- 1072.

324. Stewart S, Marley JE, Horowitz JD. Effects of a multidisciplinary, home-based intervention on unplanned readmissions and survival among patients with chronic congestive heart failure: a randomized controlled study. Lancet 1999;354:1077-1083.

325. Stromberg A. Nurse-led heart failure clinics improve survival and self-care behaviour in patients with heart failure: results from a prospective, randomized trial. Eur Heart J 2003;24:1014-1023.

326. Weinberger M, Oddone EZ, Henderson WG. Does increased access to primary care reduce hospital readmissions? Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Primary Care and Hospital Readmission. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1441-1447.

327. Jaarsma T, Halfens R, Huijer Abu-Saad H et al. Effects of education and support on self-care and resource utilization in patients with heart failure. Eur Heart J 1999;20:673-682.

328. Ekman I, Andersson B, Ehnfors M et al. Feasibility of a nurse-monitored, outpatient-care programme for elderly patients with moderate-to-severe, CHF. Eur Heart J 1998;19:1254-1260.

329. Manjunath G, Sarnak MJ, Levey AS. Prediction equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate: an update. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2001;10:785-792.

330. Opasich C, Febo O, Riccardi PG et al. Concomitant factors of decompensation in CHF. Am J Cardiol 1996;78:354-357.

331. Cockcroft DW, Gault MH. Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine. Nephron 1976;16:31-41.

332. Kearney MT, Fox KA, Lee AJ et al. Predicting death due to progressive heart failure in patients with mild-to-moderate CHF. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:1801-1808.

333. Pulignano G, Del Sindaco D, Tavazzi L et al. Clinical features and outcomes of elderly outpatients with heart failure followed up in hospital cardiology units: data from a large nationwide cardiology database (IN-CHF Registry). Am Heart J 2002;143:45-55.

334. Yancy CW. Does race matter in heart failure? Am Heart J 2003; 146:203-206.

335. Baldasseroni S, Opasich C, Gorini M et al. Left bundle-branch block is associated with increased 1-year sudden and total mortality rate in 5517 outpatients with congestive heart failure: a report from the Italian network on congestive heart failure. Am Heart J 2002;143: 398-405.

336. Vrtovec B, Delgado R, Zewail A et al. Prolonged QTc interval and high B-type natriuretic peptide levels together predict mortality in patients with advanced heart failure. Circulation 2003;107: 1764-1769.

337. Cintron G, Johnson G, Francis G et al. Prognostic significance of serial changes in left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with congestive heart failure. The V-HeFT VA Cooperative Studies Group. Circulation 1993;87:VI17-VI23.

338. Hohnloser SH, Klingenheben T, Bloomfield D et al. Usefulness of microvolt T-wave alternans for prediction of ventricular tachyarrhythmic events in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: results from a prospective observational study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41:2220-2224.

339. Nolan J, Batin PD, Andrews R et al. Prospective study of heart rate variability and mortality in CHF: results of the United Kingdom heart failure evaluation and assessment of risk trial (UK-heart). Circulation 1998;98:1510-1516.

340. La Rovere MT, Pinna GD, Maestri R et al. Short-term heart rate variability strongly predicts sudden cardiac death in CHF patients. Circulation 2003;107:565-570.

341. Cohn JN, Johnson GR, Shabetai R et al. Ejection fraction, peak exercise oxygen consumption, cardiothoracic ratio, ventricular arrhythmias, and plasma norepinephrine as determinants of prognosis in heart failure. The V-HeFT VA Cooperative Studies Group. Circulation 1993;87:VI5-VI16.

342. Swedberg K, Eneroth P, Kjekshus J et al. Hormones regulating cardiovascular function in patients with severe congestive heart failure and their relation to mortality. CONSENSUS Trial Study Group. Circulation 1990;82:1730-1736.

343. Dries DL, Sweitzer NK, Drazner MH et al. Prognostic impact of diabetes mellitus in patients with heart failure according to the etiology of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:421-428.

344. Opasich C, Pinna GD, Mazza A et al. Reproducibility of the sixminute walking test in patients with chronic congestive heart failure: practical implications. Am J Cardiol 1998;81:1497-1500.

345. Anker SD, Negassa A, Coats AJ et al. Prognostic importance of weight loss in CHF and the effect of treatment with angiotensinconverting-enzyme inhibitors: an observational study. Lancet 2003;361:1077-1083.

346. Aaronson KD, Schwartz JS, Chen TM et al. Development and prospective validation of a clinical index to predict survival in ambulatory patients referred for cardiac transplant evaluation. Circulation 1997;95:2660-2667.

347. Ponikowski P, Francis DP, Piepoli MF et al. Enhanced ventilatory response to exercise in patients with CHF and preserved exercise tolerance: marker of abnormal cardiorespiratory reflex control and predictor of poor prognosis. Circulation 2001; 103:967-972.

348. Leite JJ, Mansur AJ, de Freitas HF et al. Periodic breathing during incremental exercise predicts mortality in patients with CHF evaluated for cardiac transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 41:2175-2181. 3

349. Pinamonti B, Zecchin M, Di Lenarda A et al. Persistence of restrictive left ventricular filling pattern in dilated cardiomyopathy: an ominous prognostic sign. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;29:604-612.

350. Horwich TB, Fonarow GC, Hamilton MA et al. Anemia is associated with worse symptoms, greater impairment in functional capacity and a significant increase in mortality in patients with advanced heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:1780–1786.

351. Ammann P, Maggiorini M, Bertel O et al. Troponin as a risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients without acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 41: 2004–2009.

352. Anker SD, Doehner W, Rauchhaus M et al. Uric acid and survival in CHF: validation and application in metabolic, functional, and haemodynamic staging. Circulation 2003; 107: 1991–1997.

353. The SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. The SOLVD Investigators. N Engl J Med 1991; 325:293–302.

354. Murdoch DR, McDonagh TA, Farmer R et al. ADEPT: Addition of the AT1 receptor antagonist eprosartan to ACE-inhibitor therapy in CHF trial: haemodynamic and neurohormonal effects. Am Heart J 2001;141:800–807.

355. Tonkon M. A study of the efficacy and safety of irbesartan in combination with conventional therapy, including ACE-inhibitors, in heart failure. Irbesartan Heart Failure Group. Int J Clin Pract 2000; 54: 11–14.

356. Dunselman PH. Effects of the replacement of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril by the angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan in patients with congestive heart failure. The replacement of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (REPLACE) investigators. Int J Cardiol 2001; 77: 131–138.

357. Cleland JG, Daubert JC, Erdmann E et al. The effect of cardiac resynchronization on morbidity and mortality in heart failure. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1539–1549.

358. Dormans TP, van Meyel JJ, Gerlag PG, Tan Y, Russell FG, Smits P. Diuretic efficacy of high dose furosemide in severe heart failure: bolus injection versus continuous infusion. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28:376–382.


For citation:


. GUIDELINES FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE (2005). Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology. 2006;2(2):71-101. (In Russ.)

Views: 355


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 1819-6446 (Print)
ISSN 2225-3653 (Online)