Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology

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Scientific and practical peer-reviewed journal for cardiologists and internists "Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology" has been coming out since 2005 with the support of the Russian Society of Cardiology and the National Medical Research Center for Therapy and Preventive Medicine. Editor-in-chief of the Journal is Prof. Sergey A. Boytsov, MD, PhD, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director of the National Medical Research Center of Cardiology named after Academician  E.I. Chazov

The "Rational Pharmacotherapy in Cardiology" Journal is a national edition with issued 6 times per year. The Journal is recommended for the publication of the results of master’s and doctor’s dissertations according to the List of editions of the State Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles. It is distributed by subscription and for free at special events.

The Editorial Board consists of leading Russian and international scientists in the field of cardiology, preventive cardiology, internal medicine, clinical pharmacology and preventive pharmacotherapy, including 44 Doctors of Science and 9 Academicians and corresponding members of the Russian Academy of Sciences , and National Academies of Sciences.

The Journal mainly contains original study articles, scientific reviews, lectures, analysis of clinical practice. The Journal highlights the problems of early diagnosis, primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, associated conditions, effective pharmacotherapy, and current questions of experimental and clinical pharmacology.

All manuscripts are published for free. They are subject to a thorough scientific expertise: double-blind review, plagiarism check, multi-stage editing. Authors are required to submit a statement of disclosure of conflict of interest associated with the publication. Reviewers are experts on the subject of peer-reviewed material. In each issue the best original articles are translated and published in Russian and English languages.

The Journal has website ( in English and Russian where the full texts of published materials for all years are available in open access. The Journal is also available in open access on the website of the Scientific Electronic Library (SEL) and has a high impact factor of the Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI). Full-text electronic versions of all published materials are also available on the website of the Russian Scientific Electronic Library CyberLeninka and international open access website DOAJ. Published materials are presented in the international electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory.

HAC: 140105 Cardiology, 140306 Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology.
Science Index (2020) – 1,595
The two-year impact factor of the RSCI, taking into account citations from all sources, 2020 - 1,342
Scopus (2020) - 0,8
(Pharmacology (medical) - Q3, 25 percentile)
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine -  Q4, 22 percentile)

Current issue

Vol 19, No 1 (2023)
View or download the full issue PDF (Russian)


4-10 146

Aim. To assess the association  of hypertension  with the severe forms and fatal outcomes of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Material and Methods. This retrospective  cohort study involved adult patients (≥18 years old),  admitted to the University  hospital №4 of Sechenov University (Moscow, Russia) between 08 April 2020 and 19 November 2020 with clinically diagnosed or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. The cohort included 1637 patients. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcomes included intensive care unit admission (ICU) and invasive ventilation. Multiple logistic regression was performed to assess the independent association  between risk factors and endpoints.

Results. A total of 1637 patients were included in the study. 51.80% (n=848) of the subjects were males. The median age was 59.0 (48.0; 70.0) years and 55.90% (n=915) had pre-existing diagnosis of hypertension. Patients with hypertension  had significantly more severe lung injury based on chest CT scan findings  as well as lower oxygen saturation  (SрO2). More of them were admitted to ICU  and  placed  on invasive  ventilation.  The hypertension  group  also  had  higher  mortality.  Age,  hypertension, glucose, C-reactive protein and decreased platelet count were independently associated with mortality, hypertension  having the strongest association (OR 1.827, 95% CI 1.174-2.846, p=0.008). Age,  hypertension, neutrophil count, platelet count, glucose, and CRP were independently associated  with ICU  admission, with hypertension  having  the strongest  association  (OR  1.595, 95% CI 1.178-2.158, p=0.002). Age, hypertension, glucose, CRP and decreased platelet count were independently associated with invasive ventilation, with hypertension having the strongest association  (OR  1.703, 95% CI 1.151-2.519, p=0.008).Based on the multiple logistic regression models, odds of death, ICU admission, and invasive ventilation were higher in the hypertension  group as compared  to the group without hypertension.

Conclusion. Hypertension can be an independent predictor of severe COVID-19 and adverse outcomes, namely death, ICU admission, and invasive ventilation in hospitalized  patients.

11-16 145

Aim. To study associations  between arterial stiffness and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

Material and methods. The intima-media thickness  (IMT), the presence  and  number  of atherosclerotic  plaques  (AP) were studied  using  duplex scanning. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AI) were measured by applanation. The Bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine, hip neck (HN) and proximal hip (PH) was measured using double energy x-ray absorptiometry.

Results. A significant  correlation  of PWV  with  age,  duration  of menopause was  revealed,  a more pronounced correlation  was  noted  with  blood pressure (BP), maximum IMT thickness.  There was no significant  correlation  between  PWV  and BMD.  AI showed  a statistically  significant but weak negative  correlation  with  the HN  (rs=0.12, p<0.05); a more  pronounced negative  correlation  was  obtained  for BMD  (rs=0.16, p<0.01). For indicators characterizing the degree of bone mass increased,  there is a significant  correlation with age (rs=-0.4, p<0.01), weight (rs=0.4, p<0.01), Quetelet index (rs=0.3, p<0.01) and the presence of AP (rs=-0.12, p<0.05). According to the results of multivariate regression  analysis,  the most significant  predictors of arterial stiffness were indicators  reflecting  obesity and diastolic BP. The relationship  between BMD and age-adjusted vascular stiffness was not statistically significant.

Conclusion. In our study, postmenopausal women have increased arterial stiffness,  suggesting a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between  bone mineral density and vascular  wall stiffness  was insignificant. To a greater extent,  arterial stiffness  depended  on age,  increased  blood pressure, and the presence of atherosclerotic  changes.


17-25 108

Aim. To study the perioperative dynamics of myocardial injury biomarkers high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) and soluble ST2 (sST2) when taking nicorandil in lung cancer patients with concomitant coronary heart disease (CHD) undergoing surgical lung resection.

Material and methods. The study included 54 patients (11 women and 43 men) with non-small cell lung cancer and concomitant stable CHD who underwent lung resection in the volume of lobectomy or pneumonectomy. Patients were randomly assigned to the nicorandil group (oral administration 10 mg BID for 7 days before and 3 days after surgery; n=27) and the control group (n=27). In the study groups, the perioperative dynamics of hscTnI, IMA and sST2, determined in the blood before and 24 and 48h after surgery, were compared. We calculated the incidence of acute myocardial injury in the groups, which was diagnosed in cases of postoperative hs-cTnI increase of more than one 99th percentile of the upper reference limit. The associations of nicorandil intake and acute myocardial injury were evaluated.

Results. The groups were comparable in gender, age, basic clinical characteristics, as well as baseline levels of myocardial injury biomarkers. After the intervention, both samples showed an increase in the hs-cTnI and sST2 levels and a decrease in IMA concentration (all p<0.02 for related group differences). In the nicorandil group, in comparison with the control one, 48h after surgery, we found lower mean levels of hs-cTnI [16.7 (11.9;39.7) vs 44.3 (15.0;130.7) ng/l; p<0.05) and sST2 [62.8 (43.6;70.1) vs 76.5 (50.2;87.1) ng/ml; p<0.05), concentration increase rates of hs-cTnI [14.8 (0.7;42.2) vs 32.5 (14.0;125.0) ng/l; p<0.01) and sST2 [24.4 (10.3;42.4) vs 47.4 (17.5;65.3) ng/ml; p<0.05), as well as highest concentrations for the entire postoperative period of hs-cTnI [30.7 (12.0;53.7) vs 79.0 (20.3;203.3) ng/L, p<0.01] and sST2 [99.8 (73.6;162.5) vs 147.8 (87.8;207.7) ng/mL; p<0.05]. The serum IMA decreased when taking nicorandil to a greater extent [-8.0 (-12.6; -2.0) vs -2.7 (-6.0; +5.5) ng/ ml; p<0.01] 24h after surgery. Acute myocardial injury was diagnosed in 7 people in the nicorandil group (25.9%) and in 15 in the control one (55.6%; pχ2=0.027). The adjusted odds ratio of acute myocardial injury when taking nicorandil was 0.35 (95% confidence interval 0.15-0.83, p=0.017).

Conclusion. Taking  nicorandil  in patients with lung cancer and concomitant CHD  who underwent  surgical  lung resection is associated  with a lower postoperative  increase in hs-cTnI  and sST2  and a reduced risk of acute myocardial  injury, which may indicate the cardioprotective effect of nicorandil under acute surgical stress conditions.

26-33 108

Aim. To study the levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers  in patients with obstructive  and non-obstructive coronary  artery disease (CAD), to identify possible differences  for diagnosing the degree of coronary  obstruction.

Material and methods. The observational  study included two groups of patients: with non-obstructive (main group,  coronary artery stenosis <50%; n=30) and obstructive  (comparison group,  hemodynamically significant  coronary  artery stenosis according to the results of coronary  angiography; n=30) CAD.  The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured in plasma using enzyme  immunoassay.

Results. IL-6  levels were significantly higher in patients with obstructive  CAD  (p=0.006) than in patients with non-obstructive CAD.  There were no significant  differences  in the level of IL-1β in both groups  (p=0.482). When  constructing the ROC  curve,  the threshold  value of IL-6  was  26.060 pg/ml. At the level of IL-6  less than this value, CAD  was diagnosed with hemodynamically insignificant stenoses of the coronary  arteries.

Conclusion. The results of this study confirm that in patients with different types of coronary  artery lesions, there are differences  in the activity of the inflammation process in the arterial wall. IL-6  was higher in the obstructive  lesion group,  and IL-1β levels did not differ between groups.  Thus, it can be assumed  that hemodynamically significant  obstruction  of the coronary  arteries develops  as a result of highly  active inflammation of the vascular wall. Given the presence of a proven biological  basis and the available data on the effectiveness of monoclonal antibodies to IL-1β, one cannot exclude their possible benefit in a cohort of patients with CAD  and hemodynamically insignificant stenoses.

34-42 118

Aim. Assessment of impact  of the duration  of preoperative  antimicrobial  therapy  (AMT) on the sensitivity  of microbiological examination and polymerase  chain reaction (PCR) of blood/tissues of resected valves in operated patients with infective endocarditis  (IE).

Materials and methods. 52 operated patients with active IE were included prospectively (Duke criteria, 2015). All patients underwent microbiological examination of blood  before  admission  to the cardiac  surgery  hospital,  as well as parallel  simultaneous microbiological examination and  PCR  of blood/tissues of excised  valves,  followed  by Sanger  sequencing. The duration  of preoperative  treatment  was  calculated  from the first day of AMT according to IE diagnosis to the day of surgery.

Results. The causative agent of IE was established in 84.6% (n=44) patients by means of complex etiological diagnosis. A significant  decrease in the sensitivity of microbiological examination of venous blood was revealed when performed  in the period before and after hospitalization to a surgical hospital (up 44.2% to 17.3%, p<0.05). When comparing microbiological examination of blood/tissues of resected valves and PCR of blood/tissues of resected valves, molecular biological  methods demonstrated the greatest sensitivity, with a great advantage when examining the tissues of resected valves (17.3% and 19.2% vs. 38.5% and 75.0%, respectively;  p<0.001). The microbiological examination of venous blood performed  at an early date before admission  to the cardiac  surgery  hospital was comparable in sensitivity to the PCR blood test performed  at a later date after prolonged AMT,  and significantly less sensitive in relation to the PCR of resected valve tissues [44.2% and 38.5% (p>0.05) vs. 75.0% (p<0.05)]. In course of AMT 1-28 days,  there were comparable results of microbiological examination with PCR blood examination and significantly better results of PCR of resected valve tissues [31.0% and 34.5% and 41.4% (p>0.05) vs 72.4% (p<0.001), respectively], and with AMT ≥ 29 days, microbiological examination of any biological  material was negative  in all patients,  and PCR of blood/tissues of resected valves retained high sensitivity (0% and 0% vs. 34.8% and 78.3%, respectively; p<0.01).

Conclusion. Long-term preoperative AMT significantly reduced the sensitivity of microbiological examination of resected valve blood/tissue in operated patients with IE, whereas PCR of resected valve blood/tissue was highly sensitive even with preoperative AMT for more than 29 days.

43-49 116

Aim. The analysis of the experience of using PCSK9 inhibitors (alirocumab) in patients with very high cardiovascular risk, аccording to long observations in real clinical practice.

Material and methods. In study evaluated the data for 31  people (23 men and 8 women, the average  age of those surveyed was 59.4±5.8 years) of very high cardiovascular risk with atherogenic dyslipidemia  and no achievement  of the target lipid levels. Alirokumab was administered  in a dose of 150 mg subcutaneously once every 2 weeks in the day hospital of a multidisciplinary clinic. The primary endpoint was reached the target level of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HS-LDL) level and/or reduce HS-LDL levels by 50% or more. Liver tests, level of creatinine and glycemia  were studied to assess safety; side effects studied/

Results. The long-term use of alirocumab  (on average 7,5±2,3 months) is well tolerated without adverse reactions and withdrawal syndrome, in the day hospital of a multidisciplinary clinic. 90% of patient have achieved either a target level of HS-LDL less than 1.4 mmol/l or a reduction in HS-LDL by 50% or more. The remaining  third of patients achieved both target levels. It can be distinguished a group of patients with a good response to the medication, in the first months of administration of alirokumab.

Conclusion. The results of conducting an efficiency  assessment  for use of the alirocumab  in a dose of 150 mg  subcutaneously within two weeks showed  that this therapy has the high efficacy and good tolerability without any adverse reactions,  in the day hospital of a multidisciplinary clinic.


50-57 97

Aim. To assess adherence  to the recommended therapy at the stage of outpatient follow-up and its impact on long-term outcomes  in patients after acute myocardial  infarction based on the materials of the prospective PROFILE-IM registry.

Material and methods. The PROFILE-IM register included 160 patients who applied to one of the polyclinics in Moscow after a myocardial  infarction. The combined endpoint (CE) included death from any cause, cardiovascular events (nonfatal myocardial infarction,  nonfatal cerebral stroke), emergency hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases, significant  cardiac arrhythmias. Patients' adherence to therapy was assessed using the original questionnaire "Scale of Adherence of the National Society of Evidence-based Pharmacotherapy" (NODF) and a direct standardized patient survey by a doctor about taking medications. Visits to the doctor were carried out every two months,  data from the first year of patient follow-up are presented.

Results. In a personal  interview  with a doctor,  the ratio of the proportion  of committed, partially  committed  and non-committed patients  did not change  significantly over the entire follow-up period, while the proportion of committed patients was 81-85%. The "NODF Adherence Scale" showed that the proportion of non-committed patients was about 10 times higher than with direct patient responses to the doctor, and the proportion of non-committed  and partially committed  patients remained high at all stages of follow-up (respectively 28% and 10% at the beginning of the study, 18% and 10% at the end of the study).  Among the main factors  of non-commitment, there was a decrease  in the importance  of forgetfulness and an increase  in factors  such  as fear  of side effects  of medications, doubt  about  the need  for long-term use of medications  and  well-being. A  direct relationship of adherence with the male sex, the presence of hypertension, a feedback  relationship with alcohol consumption was revealed. The risk of CE in non-committed patients was higher compared  to the group of committed  and partially committed  patients (p<0.01).

Conclusion. The proportion of non-committed and partially committed patients remained high at all stages of follow-up. There was a direct relationship between adherence to therapy with the male sex, the presence of hypertension in the anamnesis, and a feedback relationship with alcohol consumption. Low adherence to therapy significantly increased the risk of cardiovascular events.


58-64 92

The term "microbiota"  refers to the microbial  community  occupying a specific  habitat  with  defined  physical  and  chemical  properties  and  forming specific  ecological  niches.  The adult  intestinal  microbiota  is diverse.  It mainly  consists  of bacteria  of Bacteroidetes  and  Firmicutes  types.  The link between the gut microbiota  and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is being actively discussed.  Rapid progress  in this field is explained  by the development of new generation  sequencing methods and the use of sterile gut mice in experiments.  More and more data are being published about the influence of microbiota  on the development  and course of hypertension, coronary  heart disease (IHD), myocardial  hypertrophy, chronic heart failure (CHF) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Diet therapy,  antibacterial drugs,  pro- and prebiotics are successfully  used as tools to correct the structure of the gut microbiota of the macroorganism. Correction  of gut microbiota  in an experiment  on rats with coronary  occlusion  demonstrates  a significant  reduction in necrotic area. A study  involving  patients  suffering  from  CHF  reveals a significant  reduction  in the level of uric acid,  highly  sensitive C-reactive protein,  and creatinine. In addition to structural and laboratory changes  in patients with CVD when modifying the microbiota  of the gut, also revealed the effect on the course of arterial hypertension. Correction  of gut microbiota  has a beneficial  effect on the course of AF. We assume  that further active study of issues of influence and interaction of gut microbiota  and macroorganism may in the foreseeable future make significant  adjustments  in approaches to treatment of such patients.


65-70 84

The experience of managing patients with COVID-19 around the world has shown that, although  respiratory symptoms predominate  during the manifestation of infection, then many patients can develop serious damage  to the cardiovascular system. However, coronary artery disease (CHD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide. The purpose of the review is to clarify the possible pathogenetic links between COVID-19 and acute coronary syndrome (ACS), taking into account which will help to optimize the management of patients with comorbid  pathology. Among the body's responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which increase the likelihood of developing  ACS,  the role of systemic inflammation, the quintessence  of which is a "cytokine storm" that can destabilize  an atherosclerotic  plaque is discussed.  Coagulopathy, typical for patients with Covid-19, is based on immunothrombosis, caused by a complex  interaction between neutrophilic  extracellular  traps and von Willebrandt  factor in conditions  of systemic inflammation. The implementation  of a modern strategy  for managing patients with ACS,  focused on the priority of percutaneous interventions (PCI), during  a pandemic is experiencing great  difficulties  due to the formation  of time delays  before  the start of invasive  procedures  due to the epidemiological situation. Despite this, the current European,  American and Russian recommendations for the management of infected patients with ACS confirm the inviolability of the position of PCI as the first choice for treating patients with ACS and the undesirability  of replacing  invasive treatment with thrombolysis.

71-76 87

Pulmonary  hypertension  and  right  heart dysfunction often  complicate  the course  of chronic  heart failure.  At the same  time,  the addition  of these pathological conditions  significantly increases the frequency  of hospitalizations and worsens survival prognosis. That is why the assessment  of the unfavorable outcome’s risk in the group of such patients is extremely important. This problem draws an interest for a more detailed study, considering the fact that the most convenient,  accessible and minimally invasive prognosis marker has still being searched for nowadays. In this review article, which is based on the analysis of literature over the past 20 years dedicated to the problem of pulmonary hypertension  and chronic heart failure, right ventricular-arterial  coupling, has been considered  as a relatively new parameter  and as an example  of one of these prognostic markers.  This parameter  can be assessed  by echocardiography  examination and  our article describes  several  options  of calculating it, including  one of the most  popular  and valuable ratio of tricuspidal anular plane systolic excursion to the systolic pulmonary artery pressure (TAPSE/sPAP).

77-82 91

Mitral  valve prolapse  (MVP) has  long  been  the subject  of intense  discussions regarding the prognosis and  follow-up tactics.  In most  cases,  this condition has a benign prognosis. However, recent autopsy and follow-up studies have shown risks of developing  sudden cardiac death (SCD) in some subgroups of patients who have this clinical phenomenon. The proposed  literature review uses the population  of patients with MVP with the highest probability  of developing  life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Patients with the presence of a complex  of changes, including  bicuspid  MVP, negative T waves in the inferior and lateral leads on a standard  12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), and a special anatomical  phenomenon called mitral annular  disjunction  (MAD), are at high  risk of developing  ventricular  ectopias  and VSS.  A reflection  of the high  risk of SCD  in such patients  is the increase of ventricular ectopy according to Holter monitoring. The presence of a bicuspid  MVP and the MAD  phenomenon, which is a separation  of the line of attachment  of the posterior mitral leaflet from the basal inferior wall segment  towards  the atrial wall, determines the presence of a special form of MVP,  the so-called  arrhythmogenic MVP.  Hence,  in most cases MVP has a benign  prognosis. However, patients with the aforementioned ar- rhythmic  MVP  signs  must  be given  particular  attention  and  annual  follow-up including  ECG  control,  Holter  monitoring and  echocardiographic examination of the heart to reduce the risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and SCD development.

83-88 80

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is strongly associated with stroke risk, but an association by itself does not necessarily imply causation. The question remains whether AF is a risk factor for stroke and whether treatment that reduces the severity of AF will also reduce the burden of stroke. On the other hand, it is possible that AF is a risk marker associated with atrial insufficiency, in which structural and electrical atrial remodeling coexist, leading  to the clinical manifestations of AF and the risk of stroke simultaneously. Atrial fibrillation and stroke are inextricably linked to the classic Virchow pathophysiology, which explains thromboembolism as blood stasis in a fibrillating left atrium. This concept has been reinforced by the proven efficacy of oral anticoagulants for the prevention of stroke in AF. However, a number of observations showing that the presence of AF is neither necessary nor sufficient for stroke cast doubt on the causal role of AF in vascular brain injury. The growing recognition of the role of atrial cardiomyopathy and the atrial substrate in the development of stroke associated with AF, as well as stroke without AF, has led to a rethinking of the pathogenetic model of cardioembolic stroke. A number of recent studies have shown that AF is a direct cause of stroke. Studies in which cardiac implantable devices have been used to collect data on pre-stroke AF do not appear to show a direct time relationship. The presence of AF is neither necessary nor sufficient for stroke, which casts doubt on the causal role of AF in cerebrovascular injury. Known risk factors for stroke in the presence of AF are also recognized risk factors for ischemic stroke, regardless of the presence of AF. The risk of stroke in patients with AF in the absence of risk factors differs little from that in patients without AF. This work is devoted to an attempt to answer the question whether AF is a marker or a risk factor for ischemic stroke.


89-95 75

The pathogenetic mechanisms of arrhythmias, including  high-grade ventricular  arrhythmias (including non-sustained ventricular  tachycardia),  in patients with coronary  heart disease may be different. Therefore, the characteristics  of ventricular arrhythmias must be considered  based on the totality of data, taking  into account all the available features. The importance  of a personalized approach  to the management of a patient with coronary  heart disease who had extensive myocardial  infarction 18.5 years ago,  followed  by mammary  coronary  artery bypass  grafting, aneurysmectomy and the development of heart failure with a low ejection fraction, in whom ventricular arrhythmias occurred against the background of a stable course of coronary disease , but after emotional stress, is reflected in this work. An extended examination, as well as a detailed study of the nature of ventricular arrhythmias, made it possible  to determine  the main provoking factor and select an individualized pathogenetic treatment with a good  antiarrhythmic result that persists for several years of observation.  Conducting mental tests and psychological questioning can be recommended for patients with coronary  heart disease  and  chronic  heart failure as an additional  examination to assess  the contribution  of the psycho-emotional factor  to arrhythmogenesis after excluding the ischemic and sympathetic  nature of ventricular ectopia. It is incorrect to consider that all ventricular arrhythmias  in patients with coronary heart disease are ischemic in nature, and in some clinical situations this statement is even erroneous.

96-100 79

An increase in life expectancy contributes to a steady growth  of diseases of the cardiovascular system. In recent years, there has been a stable increase in the prevalence  of rhythm  disturbances  in the population.  Fibrillation and atrial flutter are among  the most common  causes  of a decrease  in the quality of life and an increase in mortality. However, the effectiveness  of various methods of treatment is not absolute,  and therefore the development and introduction  of new antiarrhythmic drugs  is particularly  relevant. Thus,  the use of a class III antiarrhythmic drug  (niferidil) is of unconditional interest, and literature data describing the effectiveness  of its use for the relief of atypical atrial flutter are extremely few. The article presents a case of successful  relief of a persistent form of atypical atrial flutter in a 79-year-old patient using three consecutive intravenous injections of niferidil at a dose of 10 mcg/kg with a 15-minute interval in 19 hours after the start of therapy. The presented clinical case confirms the effectiveness of drug cardioversion with the use of niferidil and makes it possible to consider it as an alternative to electrical cardioversion  in patients with atypical atrial flutter.

101-106 76

The review article discusses  the safety issue of anticoagulant therapy in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation and high risk of bleeding.  An evidence base is presented demonstrating the high safety of rivaroxaban in patients over 80  years of age,  with a high risk of bleeding  and cardiovascular complications,  the presence of comorbid  pathology, geriatric syndromes  and chronic kidney disease (including in combination with anemia). The problem of low adherence to treatment in elderly patients and the possibility of solving it were separately considered.




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